The heat shock response (HSR) is a homeostatic response that maintains the proper protein-folding environment in the cell. This response is universal, and many of its components are well conserved from bacteria to humans. In this review, we focus on the regulation of one of the most well-characterized HSRs, that of Escherichia coli. We show that even for this simple model organism, we still do not fully understand the central component of heat shock regulation, a chaperone-mediated negative feedback loop. In addition, we review other components that contribute to the regulation of the HSR in E. coli and discuss how these additional components contribute to regulation. Finally, we discuss recent genomic experiments that reveal additional functional aspects of the HSR.