Convergence‐Retraction Nystagmus Associated with Dorsal Midbrain Lesions in Three Dogs

@inproceedings{Crawford2016ConvergenceRetractionNA,
  title={Convergence‐Retraction Nystagmus Associated with Dorsal Midbrain Lesions in Three Dogs},
  author={A. H. Crawford and Elsa Beltr{\'a}n and Richard H F Lam and P Kenny},
  booktitle={Journal of veterinary internal medicine},
  year={2016}
}
Convergence-retraction nystagmus is an irregular, jerky nystagmus in which both eyeballs rhythmically converge and retract into the orbit, particularly on attempting an upward gaze. In humans it is seen as part of Parinaud’s syndrome, also known as dorsal midbrain syndrome, in which a lesion of dorsally located midbrain structures (the ventral pretectum, the periaqueductal area, and the medial longitudinal fasciculus in the dorsal tegmentum) prevents upward or downward movement of the eyes. It… CONTINUE READING