Convergence, Consilience, and the Evolution of Temperate Deciduous Forests*

  title={Convergence, Consilience, and the Evolution of Temperate Deciduous Forests*},
  author={Erika J Edwards and David S. Chatelet and Bo-Chang Chen and Jin Yao Ong and Shuichiro Tagane and Hironobu Kanemitsu and Kazuki Tagawa and Kentaro Teramoto and Brian Park and Kuo-Fang Chung and Jer‐Ming Hu and Tetsukazu Yahara and Michael J. Donoghue},
  journal={The American Naturalist},
  pages={S87 - S104}
The deciduous habit of northern temperate trees and shrubs provides one of the most obvious examples of convergent evolution, but how did it evolve? Hypotheses based on the fossil record posit that deciduousness evolved first in response to drought or darkness and preadapted certain lineages as cold climates spread. An alternative is that evergreens first established in freezing environments and later evolved the deciduous habit. We monitored phenological patterns of 20 species of Viburnum… 

The Temperate Deciduous Forests of the Northern Hemisphere. A review

Temperate Deciduous Forests occur almost exclusively in the northern hemisphere and thrive under temperate climate with cold winter and warm-humid summer. They covered a continuous belt during most

Solutions to fire and shade: resprouting, growing tall and the origin of Eurasian temperate broadleaved forest.

  • H. AdieM. Lawes
  • Environmental Science
    Biological reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
  • 2022
Tree species of Eurasian broadleaved forest possess two divergent trait syndromes with contrasting patterns of resource allocation adapted to different selection environments: short-stature basal

Evolutionary dynamics driving continental radiations of Fagaceae forests across the Northern Hemisphere

The timing and pattern of major macroevolutionary events and ancient genome-wide signatures of hybridization across Fagaceae are investigated, including ancient events predating the origination of genus-level diversity.

Replicated radiation of a plant clade along a cloud forest archipelago.

This work documents the repeated evolution of a set of leaf ecomorphs in a group of neotropical plants and shows that species with disparate leaf forms differ in their climatic niches, supporting ecological adaptation as the driver of parallelism.

Inflorescence preformation prior to winter: a surprisingly widespread strategy that drives phenology of temperate perennial herbs.

IPB is a surprisingly widespread adaptation for early growth in predictable (undisturbed) conditions and contributes to temporal niche differentiation and has important consequences for understanding plant phenology, genome size evolution and phylogenetic structure of plant communities.

Angiosperms at the edge: Extremity, diversity, and phylogeny.

The primary physiological and structural traits involved in response to cold- and drought stress are summarized, the phylogenetic distribution of these adaptations are outlined, and the recurring association of these changes with rapid diversification events that occurred in multiple lineages over the past 15 million years are described.

Phylogenomic analyses highlight innovation and introgression in the continental radiations of Fagaceae across the Northern Hemisphere

Using phylogenomic analyses of nuclear and plastid genomes is used to investigate the timing and pattern of major macroevolutionary events and ancient genome-wide signatures of hybridization across Fagaceae, detecting introgression at multiple time scales.

Functional Diversity in Woody Organs of Tropical Dry Forests and Implications for Restoration

Tropical dry forests (TDFs) represent one of the most diverse and, at the same time, most threatened ecosystems on earth. Restoration of TDFs is thus crucial but is hindered by a limited

Leaf Form Evolution in Viburnum Parallels Variation within Individual Plants

It is argued that the recurrent production of alternative phenotypes provides opportunities to canalize the production of particular forms and that this phenomenon has played an important role in generating macroscale patterns.




  • D. I. Axelrod
  • Environmental Science
    Evolution; international journal of organic evolution
  • 1966
The fossil record suggests that the morphologic differences between the plants that contribute to these forests are the result of their independent evolution on opposite sides of the tropical rainforest belt during Cretaceous and later times, but evidence provided by plants living in environments where gradual gradients can now be observed between the evergreen and the deciduous habit is sought.

Adaptation, Niche Conservatism, and Convergence: Comparative Studies of Leaf Evolution in the California Chaparral

  • D. Ackerly
  • Biology, Environmental Science
    The American Naturalist
  • 2004
The results illustrate how biogeographic history may influence patterns of trait evolution and adaptation and highlight the contribution of ecological sorting processes to the assembly and functional ecology of regional biotas.

Evolution of leaf form correlates with tropical–temperate transitions in Viburnum (Adoxaceae)

This work analysed leaf form in the woody angiosperm clade Viburnum (Adoxaceae) and document evolutionarily correlated shifts in leafing habit, leaf margin morphology, leaf shape and climate.

Adaptive significance of evergreen vs. deciduous leaves : solving the triple paradox

A generalized optimality model is outlined to account for evergreen dominance and other patterns in leaf longevity and phenology, based on maximizing whole-plant carbon gain or height growth, and building on recent advances in the understanding of the quantitative relationships of leaf photosynthesis, nitrogen content, and mass per unit area to leaf life-span.

Three keys to the radiation of angiosperms into freezing environments

It is shown that woody clades successfully moved into freezing-prone environments by either possessing transport networks of small safe conduits and/or shutting down hydraulic function by dropping leaves during freezing.

Contemporaneous and recent radiations of the world's major succulent plant lineages

Using a hybrid phylogenomic approach, it is estimated that the cactus lineage diverged from its closest relatives ≈35 million years ago (Ma), however, major diversification events in cacti were more recent, with most species-rich clades originating in the late Miocene.

Unpacking a century-old mystery: Winter buds and the latitudinal gradient in leaf form.

Here, attention is focused on changes in the rhythm of growth and leaf development that accompanied evolutionary shift s into strongly seasonal climates, supported by the assumption that there were multiple biome shift s accompanied by repeated evolutionary changes in leaf form.

Subtropical montane evergreen broad-leaved forests of Yunnan, China: diversity, succession dynamics, human influence

This paper integrates studies on the natural subtropical montane evergreen broad-leaved forests (EBLFs) and secondary succession of the forests and plantations in Yunnan, to provide a basis for

Vegetation, climatic and floral changes at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary

The western interior of North America has the only known non-marine sections that contain the iridium-rich clay interpreted as the Cretaceous–Tertiary (K–T) boundary1–7. Because vegetation and

The Origins of C4 Grasslands: Integrating Evolutionary and Ecosystem Science

A synthesis of grass evolutionary biology with grassland ecosystem science will further knowledge of the evolution of traits that promote dominance in grassland systems and will provide a new context in which to evaluate the relative importance of C4 photosynthesis in transforming ecosystems across large regions of Earth.