Convergence, Competition, and Mimicry in a Temperate Community of Hummingbird-Pollinated Flowers

@article{Brown1979ConvergenceCA,
  title={Convergence, Competition, and Mimicry in a Temperate Community of Hummingbird-Pollinated Flowers},
  author={James H. Brown and Astrid Kodric‐Brown},
  journal={Ecology},
  year={1979},
  volume={60},
  pages={1022-1035}
}
We studied the pollination ecology of nine species of red, tubular flowers which bloom together in different combinations in the White Mountains of Arizona, USA. All species were strik- ingly convergent in floral color, size, and shape. Hummingbirds, the primary pollinators, usually did not visit flower species selectively, and individual birds often simultaneously carried four or more species of pollen. Flowers may have competed interspecifically for these shared pollinators, but competition… 

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