Controversies in the management of Irvine-Gass syndrome.

  title={Controversies in the management of Irvine-Gass syndrome.},
  author={Daniel F. Kiernan and Seenu M Hariprasad},
  journal={Ophthalmic surgery, lasers \& imaging retina},
  volume={44 6},
Severe postoperative cystoid macular edema associated with posterior uveitis, commonly referred to as Irvine-Gass syndrome, may occur after intraocular surgery and result in visual loss. There is little consensus on the efficacy of various topical, peribulbar, retrobulbar, or intravitreal therapeutic options compared to natural history, but patients with this condition are often referred to retinal specialists for treatment consultation. Whether you practice in a multispecialty or retina-only… 

Alternative treatment methods in eyes with pseudophakic cystoid macular edema

Treatment alternatives of PCME and its relation with underlying patho-physiologic mechanism are evaluated and there is lack of consensus regarding treatment approach for this common ocular condition.

The management of Irvine-Gass Syndrome in a patient using Inhaler Steroid

The patient presenting in this case report, has systemic hypertension and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and he use oral anti-hypertension medication and inhaler steroid, and intravitreal sustainedrelease dexamethasone implant was applied.

Postoperative cystoid macular oedema in a patient on fingolimod

A 57-year-old woman who has been on fingolimod for the past 2 years for the treatment of relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis underwent uneventful consecutive cataract surgery, and reported gradual-onset blurred vision bilaterally.

Intravitreal Dexamethasone Implantation in Intravitreal Bevacizumab Treatment-resistant Pseudophakic Cystoid Macular Edema

This is the first report to show the efficacy of IVD implantation even after repeated IVB injections in treatment-resistant PCME, and is both a safe and effective method for decreasing PCME after both uneventful and complicated cataract surgery.

Drug-Loaded Hydrogels for Intraocular Lenses with Prophylactic Action against Pseudophakic Cystoid Macular Edema

The application of a mathematical model to predict the in vivo drug release behavior suggests the feasibility of achieving therapeutic drug concentrations of bromfenac and dexamethasone in the aqueous humor for about 2 and 8 weeks, respectively, which is compatible with the current topical prophylaxis after cataract surgery.

Therapeutic Ophthalmic Lenses: A Review

This review aims to report the recent advances in the development of therapeutic ophthalmic lenses for the treatment and/or prophylaxis of eye pathologies (i.e., glaucoma, cataract, corneal diseases, or posterior segment diseases) and it gives an overview of the future perspectives and challenges in the field.

Dexamethasone 0.7 mg implants in the management of pseudophakic cystoid macular edema.

Six patients who presented with PCME and were treated with a 0.7 mg dexamethasone intravitreal implant were reported, and favorable anatomical outcomes were demonstrated by spectral domain-optical coherence tomography images.

Alternative treatment methods in eyes with pseudophakic cystoid macular edema

  • Altintas* Agk
  • Medicine
    International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
  • 2018



Dexamethasone intravitreal implant for treatment of patients with recalcitrant macular edema resulting from Irvine-Gass syndrome.

Both mean FT and mean BCVA had improved from baseline by 1 month after treatment with a dexamethasone implant, and the improvement remained statistically significant throughout the 6-month study.

Intravitreal Triamcinolone Acetonide in Refractory Pseudophakic Cystoid Macular Edema: Functional and Anatomic Results

Intravitreal TAAC was relatively safe and effective in resistant cases of pseudophakic CME with a temporary beneficial effect on visual acuity and macular edema with at least 3 months of follow-up.

Efficacy of sustained topical dorzolamide therapy for cystic macular lesions in patients with retinitis pigmentosa and usher syndrome.

Patients with either retinitis pigmentosa or Usher syndrome who received treatment of cystoid macular edema with topical dorzolamide followed by an optical coherence tomography-guided strategy showed a decrease in central foveal zone thickness in most cases, suggesting a potential corresponding visual benefit.


Intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide injection is a promising therapeutic tool for chronic pseudophakic edema resistant to other medical treatment, however, further study is needed to assess the treatment's long-term efficacy, its safety, and the need for retreatment.

Dexamethasone intravitreal implant for noninfectious intermediate or posterior uveitis.

In patients with noninfectious intermediate or posterior uveitis, a single DEX implant significantly improved intraocular inflammation and visual acuity persisting for 6 months.

Difluprednate for the prevention of ocular inflammation postsurgery: an update

Difluprednate has been studied extensively and shown in recent literature to be a safe and effective topical anti-inflammatory drug and provides clinicians with a beneficial treatment option.

Drug delivery for posterior segment eye disease.

The treatment of posterior segment disease is to a significant extent limited by the difficulty in delivering effective doses of drugs to target tissues in the posterior eye, and although systemic administration can deliver drugs to the posteriorEye, the large systemic doses necessary are often associated with significant side effects.