Controls on vegetation structure in Southwestern ponderosa pine forests, 1941 and 2004.

  title={Controls on vegetation structure in Southwestern ponderosa pine forests, 1941 and 2004.},
  author={Jonathan D. Bakker and Margaret M. Moore},
  volume={88 9},
Long-term studies can broaden our ecological understanding and are particularly important when examining contingent effects that involve changes to dominance by long-lived species. Such a change occurred during the last century in Southwestern (USA) ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests. We used five livestock grazing exclosures established in 1912 to quantify vegetation structure in 1941 and 2004. Our objectives were to (1) assess the effects of historical livestock grazing on overstory… CONTINUE READING
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