Controlling cell behavior electrically: current views and future potential.

  title={Controlling cell behavior electrically: current views and future potential.},
  author={Colin D. McCaig and Ann M. Rajnicek and Bing Song and Min Zhao},
  journal={Physiological reviews},
  volume={85 3},
Direct-current (DC) electric fields are present in all developing and regenerating animal tissues, yet their existence and potential impact on tissue repair and development are largely ignored. This is primarily due to ignorance of the phenomenon by most researchers, some technically poor early studies of the effects of applied fields on cells, and widespread misunderstanding of the fundamental concepts that underlie bioelectricity. This review aims to resolve these issues by describing: 1) the… 

Modulation of cell function by electric field: a high-resolution analysis

A systematic numerical study of a cell-field interaction following cell exposure to the external EF provides insight into the mechanisms for frequency-dependent cell responses to EF that regulate cell function, which may have important implications for EF-based therapies and biotechnology development.

Application of direct current electric fields to cells and tissues in vitro and modulation of wound electric field in vivo

Protocols to apply an EF to cells or tissues cultured in an electrotactic chamber to simulate and study cellular and molecular responses to electric signals in these events are presented.

Dissecting the Molecular Mechanisms of Electrotactic Effects.

Recent work introducing genetically tractable systems, such as yeast and Dictyostelium cells, that begin to identify proteins and pathways involved in this response both at the level of ion transport at the membrane and at thelevel of cytoskeleton regulation are reviewed.

The Application of Electric Fields in Biology and Medicine

A field- transduction mechanism that shares features common to the detection of fluid shear by cells is described, and some experimental evidence is provided that supports this model.

The Morphological and Molecular Changes of Brain Cells Exposed to Direct Current Electric Field Stimulation

It is shown that cells of the central nervous system can respond to direct current electric fields both in terms of their morphological shape and molecular expression of certain proteins, and this in turn can help to begin understand the mechanisms underlying the clinical benefits of directCurrent electric field.

Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Cells : Physiological and Therapeutical Approaches and Molecular

This review gathers and discusses the published plethora of cell biological effects which are ascribed to electric fields (EF), magnetic fields (MF) and electromagnetic fields (EMF) and looks for basic principles in the EF, MF and EMF action.

Endogenous bioelectric fields: a putative regulator of wound repair and regeneration in the central nervous system

The growing evidence suggesting that EFs play a key role in regulating the cellular response to injury and may be a therapeutic target for inducing regeneration in the mammalian CNS is described.

The Spark of Life: The Role of Electric Fields in Regulating Cell Behaviour Using the Eye as a Model System

In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that EF regulate not only cell movement but orientation of cells during mitosis, an effect which may underlie shaping of tissues and organs.

Electrical Stimulation in Tissue Regeneration

Electrical measurements provide a tool for the rapid quantitative diagnosis of bone and electrical resistivity of biological tissues obviously varies due to the variation in tissue composition, such as tissue type and density, cell membrane permeability, and electrolyte content.

Optimization of Electrical Stimulation for Safe and Effective Guidance of Human Cells.

A multifield and -chamber electrotaxis chip, and various stimulation schemes to determine effective and safe stimulation strategies to guide the migration of human vascular endothelial cells and to bring electrical stimulation for in vivo use are developed.



The responses of cells to electrical fields: a review

The significance of these recent results is increased by the finding that several cell types that normally migrate or grow long distances in embryos respond directionally to surprisingly small fields, and by the concurrent finding that developing embryos produce substantial endogenous currents.

Cellular mechanisms of direct-current electric field effects: galvanotaxis and metastatic disease

The galvanotactic responses of strongly metastatic prostate and breast cancer cells are much more prominent, and the cells move in the opposite direction compared with corresponding weakly metastatic cells, which could have important implications for the metastatic process and has clinical implications.

A small, physiological electric field orients cell division.

We report on an observation that the orientation of cell division is directed by small, applied electric fields (EFs). Cultured human corneal epithelial cells were exposed to a direct-current EF of

Electrical fields, nerve growth and nerve regeneration

Electric fields enhance regeneration of damaged PNS and CNS neurones in animals as diverse as lampreys, frogs, rats and guinea‐pigs, but the mechanisms by which fields produce their effects are not understood.

A role for endogenous electric fields in wound healing.

Reaction of cells to the galvanic current in tissue cultures

The hypothesis of Kappers, that electrical forces are determining factors in the outgrowth and distribution of the different constituents of the nervous system, has been proved to be a fact in pieces of the central nervous system of the chick cultured in vitro.

Has electrical growth cone guidance found its potential?

Nerve regeneration and wound healing are stimulated and directed by an endogenous electrical field in vivo

An in vivo rat corneal model is used and it is shown that nerve sprouting, the direction of nerve growth and the rate of epithelial wound healing are controlled coordinately by the wound-induced electric field.

Enhanced spinal cord regeneration in lamprey by applied electric fields.

Enhanced regeneration was observed in the severed giant reticulospinal neurons and processes from giant axons with swollen irregular tips, indicating active growth, were seen in or across the spinal lesion in most of the electrically treated animals.

Hippocampal growth cone responses to focally applied electric fields.

It is shown that different growth cones of the same neuron can show differential responsiveness to focally applied electric fields: growth cones on the short, straight processes that are destined to become dendrites, oriented toward the cathode, whereas growth cone on the longest process, the presumptive axon, did not orient.