Controlled irradiative formation of penitentes.

@article{Bergeron2006ControlledIF,
  title={Controlled irradiative formation of penitentes.},
  author={Vance Bergeron and C. Berger and Meredith D. Betterton},
  journal={Physical review letters},
  year={2006},
  volume={96 9},
  pages={
          098502
        }
}
Spike-shaped structures are produced by light-driven ablation in very different contexts. Penitentes 1-4 m high are common on Andean glaciers, where their formation changes glacier dynamics and hydrology. Laser ablation can produce cones 10-100 microm high with a variety of proposed applications in materials science. We report the first laboratory generation of centimeter-scale snow and ice penitentes. Systematically varying conditions allows identification of the parameters controlling the… 
Physical processes causing the formation of penitentes.
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Simulations, based upon a recent model representing conditions on Pluto, show that deepening penitentes reproduce both the tri-modal (north–south, east–west and northeast–southwest) orientation and the spacing of the ridges of this bladed terrain.
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Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA. *e-mail: khand@jpl.nasa.gov Europa’s icy surface is unknown at the metre scale. Hobley et al.1 argue that 15-m-tall
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Abstract. Glacier tables are structures frequently encountered on temperate glaciers. They consist of a rock supported by a narrow ice foot which forms through differential melting of the ice. In
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