Controlled delivery of apomorphine through buccal mucosa, towards a noninvasive administration method in Parkinson's disease: a preclinical mechanistic study.

@article{Itin2020ControlledDO,
  title={Controlled delivery of apomorphine through buccal mucosa, towards a noninvasive administration method in Parkinson's disease: a preclinical mechanistic study.},
  author={Constantin Itin and Rinat Komargodski and Abraham J. Domb and Amnon Hoffman},
  journal={Journal of pharmaceutical sciences},
  year={2020}
}
Apomorphine (APO), a potent treatment for Parkinson's disease, is only administered parenterally either as intermittent injections or as an infusion. This is due to extensive hepatic "first pass" metabolism. Prolonged delivery through buccal mucosa may be potential substitute for parenteral infusions. To investigate this concept of buccal mucosal delivery, permeability ex vivo studies were performed through excised porcine buccal mucosa by utilizing Ussing diffusion chamber. Permeability rates… 
Prolonged delivery of apomorphine through the buccal mucosa, towards a noninvasive sustained administration method in Parkinson's disease: in vivo investigations in pigs.
TLDR
In the current work, prolonged systemic delivery of apomorphine via buccal mucosa was shown to be a promising treatment for Parkinson`s disease as a substitute for clinically utilized subcutaneous infusions and limitations of an Ussing diffusion chamber as an ex vivo research tool were discussed.
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The characteristics of various in vitro penetration models of buccal mucosal delivery and the main factors affecting its application are analyzed, methods for evaluating mucosal integrity and viability are listed, and the characteristics and applicability of commonly used diffusion cells are summarized.
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