Control of a two-dimensional movement signal by a noninvasive brain-computer interface in humans.

  title={Control of a two-dimensional movement signal by a noninvasive brain-computer interface in humans.},
  author={Jonathan R. Wolpaw and Dennis J. McFarland},
  journal={Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America},
  volume={101 51},
  • J. Wolpaw, D. McFarland
  • Published 21 December 2004
  • Biology, Medicine, Computer Science
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) can provide communication and control to people who are totally paralyzed. BCIs can use noninvasive or invasive methods for recording the brain signals that convey the user's commands. Whereas noninvasive BCIs are already in use for simple applications, it has been widely assumed that only invasive BCIs, which use electrodes implanted in the brain, can provide multidimensional movement control of a robotic arm or a neuroprosthesis. We now show that a noninvasive… 

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