The initial use of composite sampling involved the analysis of many negative samples with relatively high laboratory cost (Dorfman sampling). We propose a method of double compositing and compare its efficiency with Dorfman sampling. The variability of composite measurement samples has environmental interest (hot spots). The precision of these estimates depends on the kurtosis of the distribution; leptokurtic distributions (γ2 > 0) have increased precision as the number of field samples is increased. The opposite effect is obtained for platykurtic distributions. In the lognormal case, coverage probabilities are reasonable for σ < 0.5. The Poisson distribution can be associated with temporal compositing, of particular interest where radioactive measurements are taken. Sample size considerations indicate that the total sampling effort is directly proportional to the length of time sampled. If there is background radiation then increasing levels of this radiation require larger sample sizes to detect the same difference in radiation.