Contributions to birdsong from the left and right sides of the intact syrinx

@article{Suthers1990ContributionsTB,
  title={Contributions to birdsong from the left and right sides of the intact syrinx},
  author={Roderick A. Suthers},
  journal={Nature},
  year={1990},
  volume={347},
  pages={473-477}
}
  • R. Suthers
  • Published 4 October 1990
  • Biology, Physics
  • Nature
THE vocal organ, the syrinx, of some songbirds has been hypothesized to contain two sound sources that can be operated independently. The syrinx of songbirds (Oscines) is a bipartite structure1,2 whose two sides are potentially capable of acting either together or independently to produce sound3–9. Sound production is lateralized in some species such that one side produces most of the song9–11. I have now directly measured the acoustic output and motor dynamics of the left and right sides of… 
Bilateral song production in domestic canaries.
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The data show that strong unilateral dominance in song production, present in the waterslager strain, is not a trait of the species as a whole and that the pattern of song lateralization can be altered by selective breeding for particular song characteristics.
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Motor mechanisms of a vocal mimic: implications for birdsong production
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It is shown that when a vocal mimic, the northern mockingbird, accurately copies the song of another species it also uses the vocal motor pattern employed by the model species, suggesting that species–specific acoustic features of the model seem most difficult to copy.
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It is reported that in brown thrashers (Toxostoma rufum) only the activity of muscles that gate sound production by regulating airflow through each side of the syrinx is lateralized, suggesting that song lateralization did not evolve as a means of achieving a single 'executive' command centre, or as a way of economizing on motor circuits to free brain space for other tasks.
Lateralization of syringeal function during song production in the canary.
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It is suggested that in male canaries most syllables are normally sung by the left side alone, with some syllables being produced by the right side alone and some being sung by both sides together.
Peripheral control and lateralization of birdsong.
TLDR
Different species have adopted different motor strategies that use the left and right sides of the syrinx in patterns of unilateral, bilateral, alternating, or sequential phonation to achieve the differing temporal and spectral characteristics of their songs.
Two-voice complexity from a single side of the syrinx in northern mockingbird Mimus polyglottos vocalizations
TLDR
The first evidence of syringeal lateralization of nonlinear dynamics during bilaterally produced chaotic calls is presented, providing the first analysis of the contribution made by each side of the syrinx to the production of non linear phenomena.
Mechanisms of song production in the Australian magpie
Australian magpies (Gymnorhina tibicen) are notable for their vocal prowess. We investigated the syringeal and respiratory dynamics of vocalization by two 6-month-old males, whose songs had a number
Lateralization and motor stereotypy of song production in the brown-headed cowbird.
TLDR
Cross-correlation analyses reveal that individual cowbirds produce each of their four to seven song types with a distinct stereotyped motor pattern--as judged by the patterns of syringeal airflow and subsyringeal pressure.
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The results suggest that coupling arises from a passive physical interaction between the 2 syringeal sources which is activated or regulated in some fashion by neural control from either side.
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