Contributions of microbes in vertebrate gastrointestinal tract to production and conservation of nutrients.

@article{Stevens1998ContributionsOM,
  title={Contributions of microbes in vertebrate gastrointestinal tract to production and conservation of nutrients.},
  author={Courtenay Edward Stevens and Ian D. Hume},
  journal={Physiological reviews},
  year={1998},
  volume={78 2},
  pages={
          393-427
        }
}
The vertebrate gastrointestinal tract is populated by bacteria and, in some species, protozoa and fungi that can convert dietary and endogenous substrates into absorbable nutrients. Because of a neutral pH and longer digesta retention time, the largest bacterial populations are found in the hindgut or large intestine of mammals, birds, reptiles, and adult amphibians and in the foregut of a few mammals and at least one species of bird. Bacteria ferment carbohydrates into short-chain fatty acids… Expand
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