Contributions of an avian basal ganglia–forebrain circuit to real-time modulation of song

  title={Contributions of an avian basal ganglia–forebrain circuit to real-time modulation of song},
  author={Mimi H. Kao and A. J. Doupe and Michael S. Brainard},
Cortical–basal ganglia circuits have a critical role in motor control and motor learning. In songbirds, the anterior forebrain pathway (AFP) is a basal ganglia–forebrain circuit required for song learning and adult vocal plasticity but not for production of learned song. Here, we investigate functional contributions of this circuit to the control of song, a complex, learned motor skill. We test the hypothesis that neural activity in the AFP of adult birds can direct moment-by-moment changes in… 

Lesions of an avian basal ganglia circuit prevent context-dependent changes to song variability.

It is suggested that a key function of avian basal ganglia circuitry is to regulate vocal performance and plasticity by specifically modulating moment-by-moment variability in the structure of individual song elements.

A basal ganglia-forebrain circuit in the songbird biases motor output to avoid vocal errors

The observations support a view that basal ganglia-related circuits directly implement behavioral adaptations that minimize errors and subsequently stabilize these adaptations by training premotor cortical areas.

Differential contributions of basal ganglia and thalamus to song initiation, tempo, and structure.

The results highlight the cumulative contribution of stages of a basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuit to motor output along with distinct involvement of thalamus in song initiation or "gating" along with the effects of DLM on song initiation.

Anatomy of a songbird basal ganglia circuit essential for vocal learning and plasticity

Plasticity of stereotyped birdsong driven by chronic manipulation of cortical-basal ganglia activity

Neurons in a Forebrain Nucleus Required for Vocal Plasticity Rapidly Switch between Precise Firing and Variable Bursting Depending on Social Context

The results suggest that pallial–basal ganglia circuits contribute to motor learning and production through multiple mechanisms: patterned signals could guide changes in motor output while state-dependent variability could subserve motor exploration.

The contribution of LMAN, the output of an avian basal ganglia-forebrain circuit to song variability and adaptive plasticity in the adult Bengalese finch

Using a new behavioral paradigm for adult plasticity, data suggest that LMAN in the adult Bengalese finch retains a strong capacity for actively driving adult song change, and that its function remains adaptive long after learning is complete.

Neural mechanisms of birdsong learning: basal ganglia circuits and reinforcement learning model

An overview of recent work on the function of the anterior forebrain pathway is presented, and influential models that explain how birds develop and maintain their song using the AFP are reviewed.

Dual Pre-Motor Contribution to Songbird Syllable Variation

The results indicate that pre-motor variation generated by the basal ganglia pathway may be sufficient to adjust vocal output toward highly acoustically dispersed targets of imitation, but suggest that complete acquisition of the pronounced variation in syllable pitch that characterizes adult song will necessitate a gradual developmental interaction between the basal Ganglia and vocal motor pathways.



Singing-Related Neural Activity in a Dorsal Forebrain–Basal Ganglia Circuit of Adult Zebra Finches

The singing-related activity of neurons in AFP nuclei of songbirds is consistent with a role of the AFP in adult singing or song maintenance, possibly related to the function of this circuit during initial song learning.

Interruption of a basal ganglia–forebrain circuit prevents plasticity of learned vocalizations

These findings provide evidence that cortical-basal ganglia circuits may participate in the evaluation of sensory feedback during calibration of motor performance, and demonstrate that damage to such circuits can have little effect on previously learned behaviour while conspicuously disrupting the capacity to adaptively modify that behaviour.

Lesions of an Avian Forebrain Nucleus That Disrupt Song Development Alter Synaptic Connectivity and Transmission in the Vocal Premotor Pathway

The avian forebrain nucleus, the lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior neostriatum (LMAN), is necessary for normal song development because LMAN lesions made in juvenile birds disrupt song

An associational model of birdsong sensorimotor learning II. Temporal hierarchies and the learning of song sequence.

A computational model of sensorimotor learning in songbirds that is constrained by the known functional anatomy of the song circuit is presented and demonstrates how simple rules of associational plasticity can contribute to the learning of a complex behavior on multiple time scales.

Identification of a forebrain motor programming network for the learned song of zebra finches

The study of the motor control system for birdsong has provided the most direct evidence to date for localizing the programming of a skilled motor sequence to the telencephalon and the observation that unilateral forebrain perturbation was sufficient to alter the pattern of this bilaterally organized behavior suggests that (non-auditory) feedback pathways to the forebrain exist to coordinate the two hemispheres during singing.

Two-Stage, Input-Specific Synaptic Maturation in a Nucleus Essential for Vocal Production in the Zebra Finch

Synaptic maturation events can be temporally distinct and input-specific and may play different roles in behavioral plasticity.

A comparative study of the behavioral deficits following lesions of various parts of the zebra finch song system: implications for vocal learning

  • C. ScharffF. Nottebohm
  • Biology
    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
  • 1991
It is concluded that Area X and LMAN contribute differently to song acquisition: the song variability that is typical of vocal development persists following early deafness or lesions of Area X but ends abruptly following removal of LMAN.

Topographic organization of a forebrain pathway involved with vocal learning in zebra finches

Two topographically organized pathways that traverse the songbird forebrain in parallel are revealed that may contribute to interhemispheric coordination of vocal behavior and the presence of song‐selective auditory neurons in DLM, lMAN, and RA suggest these paths might subserve some form of auditory or auditory‐motor mapping.

Two distinct inputs to an avian song nucleus activate different glutamate receptor subtypes on individual neurons.

  • R. MooneyM. Konishi
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1991
An in vitro brain slice preparation containing the robust nucleus of the archistriatum, a forebrain song control nucleus, and its inputs from two other song nuclei suggests that L-MAN and HVc axons provide pharmacologically distinct types of excitatory input to many of the same RA neurons.

Electrical stimulation in forebrain nuclei elicits learned vocal patterns in songbirds.

It is suggested that stimulation of the forebrain vocal pathway activates a dedicated neural circuit that generates the temporal structure of song and whose specific pattern of activity is programmed during sensorimotor learning in each individual.