Contributions of Limb Joints to Energy Absorption during Landing in Cats

@article{Wu2019ContributionsOL,
  title={Contributions of Limb Joints to Energy Absorption during Landing in Cats},
  author={Xueqing Wu and Baoqing Pei and Yuyang Pei and Nan Wu and Kaiyuan Zhou and Yan Hao and Wei Wang},
  journal={Applied Bionics and Biomechanics},
  year={2019},
  volume={2019}
}
There is a high risk of serious injury to the lower limbs in a human drop landing. However, cats are able to jump from the same heights without any sign of injury, which is attributed to the excellent performance of their limbs in attenuating the impact forces. The bionic study of the falling cat landing may therefore contribute to improve the landing-shock absorbing ability of lower limbs in humans. However, the contributions of cat limb joints to energy absorption remain unknown. Accordingly… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

How do Cats Resist Landing Injury: Insights into the Multi-level Buffering Mechanism
TLDR
The results show that the pads and limb bones are major contributors to non-impact-injuries, and cats actively couple their joints to adjust the parameters of movement to dissipate the higher impact.
Finite Element Analysis of a Novel Approach for Knee and Ankle Protection during Landing
TLDR
Results showed that the semi-rigid support at the ankle joint can share the high impact force that would otherwise be inflicted on one’s lower extremity, thereby reducing the peak stress on the inferior articular surface of the tibia, menisci, and articular cartilages.
New Insights for the Design of Bionic Robots: Adaptive Motion Adjustment Strategies During Feline Landings
Felines have significant advantages in terms of sports energy efficiency and flexibility compared with other animals, especially in terms of jumping and landing. The biomechanical characteristics of
Forces experienced by instrumented animals depend on lifestyle
TLDR
There can be no universal rule for collar-tag masses as a percentage of carrier mass since tag forces depend on lifestyle, and controlled studies on domestic dogs revealed how the tag forces are dictated by animal gait and speed but appear largely invariant of body mass.
Animal lifestyle changes acceptable mass limits for attached tags
TLDR
Using data from collar-attached accelerometers on diverse free-ranging terrestrial animals, a tag-based acceleration method is detailed in which species athleticism is the principal determinant of tag forces, whereas body mass is of little importance.
Animal lifestyle affects acceptable mass limits for attached tags
TLDR
In four carnivore species encompassing two orders of magnitude in mass, forces exerted by ‘3%' tags were equivalent to 4–19% of carrier body mass during moving, with a maximum of 54% in a hunting cheetah.
A Review of Bioinspired Vibration Control Technology
Due to huge demand in engineering, vibration control technology and related studies have always been at the frontiers of research. Although traditional vibration control methods are stable and

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 26 REFERENCES
How cat lands: insights into contribution of the forelimbs and hindlimbs to attenuating impact force
TLDR
This work analyzed the landing impulses and energy absorption based on the ground reaction forces and high-speed video recordings of cats performing self-initiated jump downs to show that the distribution of impact forces between forelimbs and hindlimbs exhibits a landing height-dependent manner.
Running on uneven ground: leg adjustments by muscle pre-activation control.
Contributions of lower extremity joints to energy dissipation during landings.
TLDR
The knee joint extensors were consistent contributors to energy dissipation and the ankle plantarflexors contributed more in the STL landings, whereas the hip extensor were greater contributors during the SFL landings.
Modulation of limb dynamics in the swing phase of locomotion
The mechanical actions of muscles predict the direction of muscle activation during postural perturbations in the cat hindlimb.
TLDR
It is found that muscle activation during postural perturbations was indeed directed oppositely to the endpoint reaction forces of that muscle, indicating that muscle recruitment during balance challenges is driven, at least in part, by limb architecture.
Responses of elbow extensors to landing forces during jump downs in cats
TLDR
The temporal constancy of the kinematic and kinetic data and EMG activity across jump heights suggests that a generalized motor program can be used to activate extensor muscles at the elbow joint during the prelanding phase of self-initiated jumps.
...
...