OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of the carotid lesions during ischemic strokes. METHODS This was a descriptive cross-sectional study, conducted in Brazzaville from January 2011 to June 2012 in a consecutive series of 73 patients, victims of a transient ischemic attack or ischemic stroke, documented by a brain computed tomography. All patients underwent vascular ultrasonography of the supra-aortic trunks, carried out within the framework of etiological assessment. The examination searched for plaques, parietal infiltration (measurement of intima-media thickness), and carotid stenosis or occlusion. RESULTS There were 49 men (67%) and 24 women (33%), mean age 58.7 ± 11.8 years. Eleven patients (15%) had a transient ischemic attack and 62 (85%) an ischemic stroke. The identified independent vascular risk factors were known and treated hypertension (n=66, 90.4%), dyslipidemia (n=16, 22%), diabetes mellitus (n=9, 12.3%), and smoking (n=5, 6.8%), with on average 2.5 factors per individual. Vascular ultrasonography of the supra-aortic trunks, normal in 44 patients (60.3%) was pathological in the other 29 (39.7%). The main anomalies were atheromatous plaque (n=10, 13.7%), parietal infiltration (n=19, 26%). On average intima-media thickness was 0.86 ± 0.11 mm on the left and 0.83 ± 0.11 mm on the right. Two cases of moderate stenosis were noted on the right and left internal carotids, respectively. CONCLUSION This preliminary study confirms the existence of carotid atherosclerosis anomalies during ischemic strokes. These lesions, though non-significant, must nevertheless be taken into consideration when searching for the cause of stroke in high-risk vascular patients.