Contribution of a Snake Venom Toxin to Myasthenia Gravis: The Discovery of α-bungarotoxin in Taiwan

@article{Chu2005ContributionOA,
  title={Contribution of a Snake Venom Toxin to Myasthenia Gravis: The Discovery of $\alpha$-bungarotoxin in Taiwan},
  author={N. S. Chu},
  journal={Journal of the History of the Neurosciences},
  year={2005},
  volume={14},
  pages={138 - 148}
}
  • N. Chu
  • Published 1 June 2005
  • Biology
  • Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is now recognized as an autoimmune disorder in which antibodies to acetylcholine (ACh) receptor lead to impairment of neuromuscular transmission. The discovery of α-bungarotoxin by Chang and Lee in 1963 has played a crucial role in establishing the new concept of MG. However, isolation of bungarotoxins from the venom of Taiwan banded krait, Bungarus multicinctus, was accomplished in the poorly funded and under equipped laboratory of the Department of Pharmacology… 
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Value of Aptamers in Envenomation Cases
TLDR
An emerging strategy that relies on the use of aptamers is reviewed and how close—or otherwise—the authors are to finding a viable alternative to theUse of antibodies for the therapy of human envenomation is discussed.
Recognition of Bungarus multicinctus Venom by a DNA Aptamer against β-Bungarotoxin
TLDR
DNA aptamers that bind to β-bungarotoxin (β-BuTx), a neurotoxin from the venom of Bungarus multicinctus, are identified and suggested that aptamer βB-1 can serve as a useful tool for the design and development of drugs and diagnostic tests for β- BuTx poisoning and B. multicinctUS bites.
Therapeutic alternatives from venoms and toxins
TLDR
Nonherbal natural therapeutic alternatives approved by the FDA, those that have undergone extensive clinical evaluation and shown promise in preclinical evaluation, or those that are isolated in pure form or subjected for the treatment to venoms are reviewed.
Therapeutic alternatives from venoms and toxins
TLDR
Nonherbal natural therapeutic alternatives approved by the FDA, those that have undergone extensive clinical evaluation and shown promise in preclinical evaluation, or those that are isolated in pure form or subjected for the treatment to venoms are reviewed.
Autoimmune disorders of the neuromuscular junction.
Snake venom: From fieldwork to the clinic
TLDR
Snake venoms are recognized here as a grossly under‐explored resource in pharmacological prospecting and must be combined with other disciplines if the full potential of snake venom‐derived medications is to be realized.
Autoimmune disorders of the neuromuscular junction.
The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is a specialized synapse with a complex structural and functional organization. It is a target for a variety of immunological disorders and these diseases usually
Deadly Innovations: Unraveling the Molecular Evolution of Animal Venoms
TLDR
A comprehensive understanding of the origin of venom proteins and the evolutionary forces shaping their biodiversity is essential to unravel the complete biodiscovery potential of this nature’s most biochemically complex cocktail.
Alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Is a Target in Pharmacology and Toxicology
  • M. Pohanka
  • Biology, Medicine
    International journal of molecular sciences
  • 2012
TLDR
The α7 nAChR is associated with a cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in the termination of the parasympathetic nervous system and is suitable for treatment of multiple cognitive dysfunctions such as Alzheimer’s disease or schizophrenia.
...
1
2
3
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 16 REFERENCES
Looking Back on the Discovery of α-Bungarotoxin
  • C.C. Chang
  • Biology
    Journal of Biomedical Science
  • 1999
This review is a personal narration by a retiring pharmacologist from Taiwan who looks back at his discovery of α-bungarotoxin from the historical perspective of Taiwan during the last 50 years, with
Distribution of Bungarus multicinctus venom following envenomation.
  • C. Y. Lee, L. Tseng
  • Biology, Medicine
    Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology
  • 1966
Use of a snake venom toxin to characterize the cholinergic receptor protein.
  • J. Changeux, M. Kasai, C. Lee
  • Biology, Chemistry
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1970
alpha-Bungarotoxin, a polypeptide of mol wt 8000 purified from the venom of Bungarus multicinctus, blocks irreversibly and specifically the excitation by cholinergic agonists on the isolated
Antibody to acetylcholine receptor in myasthenia gravis
TLDR
Assay of antireceptor antibody should prove a useful test in the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis, and presence or titer of antibody did not appear to correlate with age, sex, steroid therapy, or duration of symptoms.
Responses of acetylcholinesterase from Torpedo marmorata to salts and curarizing drugs.
  • J. Changeux
  • Biology, Chemistry
    Molecular pharmacology
  • 1966
TLDR
In solutions of low salt concentration (Γ/2 = 0.003) significant affinity of the enzyme for two pachycurares, flaxedil and d-tubocurarine, can be demonstrated and these observations are interpreted in terms of conformational alterations of the AChE molecule in response to the binding of the pharmacologic agents.
Neuromuscular Junction in Myasthenia Gravis: Decreased Acetylcholine Receptors
The number of acetylcholine receptors was determined in the neuromuscular junctions of eight patients with typical myasthenia gravis and in five controls, by means of 1251-labeled α-bungarotoxin
Autoimmune Response to Acetylcholine Receptor
Injection of rabbits with acetylcholine receptor highly purified from the electric organ of Electrophorus electricus emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant resulted in the production of
N,O‐di and N,N,O‐tri [3H] acetyl α‐bungarotoxins as specific labelling agents of cholinergic receptors
TLDR
It is concluded that N,O‐di and N,N, O‐tri‐[3H] acetyl α‐bungarotoxins are specific and irreversible labelling agents for the cholinergic receptors of skeletal muscle.
Influence of chronic neostigmine treatment on the number of acetylcholine receptors and the release of acetylcholine from the rat diaphragm
1. Rats were treated twice daily for 7 days with neostigmine and the diaphragm was isolated for study of its acetylcholine content, release upon nerve stimulation and the number of receptors in the
Acetylcholine Receptors: Number and Distribution at Neuromuscular Junctions in Rat Diaphragm
TLDR
Autoradiographic analysis of single fibers labeled with [1251]α-bungarotoxin reveals that virtually all of these receptors are localized in the end plate.
...
1
2
...