Contribution of Distal-less to quantitative variation in butterfly eyespots

@article{Beldade2002ContributionOD,
  title={Contribution of Distal-less to quantitative variation in butterfly eyespots},
  author={Patr{\'i}cia Beldade and Paul M. Brakefield and Anthony D. Long},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2002},
  volume={415},
  pages={315-318}
}
The colour patterns decorating butterfly wings provide ideal material to study the reciprocal interactions between evolution and development. They are visually compelling products of selection, often with a clear adaptive value, and are amenable to a detailed developmental characterization. Research on wing-pattern evolution and development has focused on the eyespots of the tropical butterfly Bicyclus anynana. There is quantitative variation for several features of eyespot morphology but the… 
Distal-less regulates eyespot patterns and melanization in Bicyclus butterflies.
TLDR
It is shown that the characteristic two-eyespot pattern of wildtype Bicyclus anynana forewings is correlated with dynamic progression of Dll, En, and Sal expression in larval wings from four spots to two spots, and that this gene is also a possible selector gene for scale melanization in butterflies.
Developmental and genetic mechanisms for evolutionary diversification of serial repeats: eyespot size in Bicyclus anynana butterflies.
TLDR
This work uses micromanipulations of developing wings to dissect the contribution of different components of eyespot development to quantitative differences in eyespot size on one wing surface, and reports on the phenotypic analysis of a number of mutant stocks demonstrating how single alleles can affect different eyespots in concert or independently, and thus contribute to the individualization of serially repeated traits.
Mutants highlight the modular control of butterfly eyespot patterns
TLDR
Several developmental models are proposed, based on wing compartmentalization in Drosophila, that provide the first framework for thinking about the molecular evolution of butterfly wing pattern modularity.
Modularity, individuality, and evo-devo in butterfly wings
TLDR
It is argued that among-eyespot correlations are unlikely to have constrained the evolutionary diversification of butterfly wing patterns but might be important when only limited time is available for adaptive evolution to occur.
Genome editing in butterflies reveals that spalt promotes and Distal-less represses eyespot colour patterns
TLDR
It is found that deletions in a single gene, spalt, are sufficient to reduce or completely delete eyespot colour patterns, thus demonstrating a positive regulatory role for this gene in eyespot determination.
Cryptic variation in butterfly eyespot development: the importance of sample size in gene expression studies
TLDR
Exposure to expression of Notch (N), Spalt (Sal), and Engrailed (En) during butterfly eyespot determination is surveyed to better understand how pattern formation may vary within a population.
Concerted evolution and developmental integration in modular butterfly wing patterns
TLDR
The eyespot pattern in Bicyclus anynana butterflies provides an ideal system where morphological modularity can be dissected and different levels of genetic integration analyzed, and changes in eyespot size across all wing surfaces depend on eyespot position along the anterior–posterior axis.
Distal-less induces elemental color patterns in Junonia butterfly wings
TLDR
It is shown that ectopically expressed Dll induces ectopic elemental color patterns in the adult wings of the blue pansy butterfly, Junonia orithya, and suggests that Dll plays an instructive role in the development of color pattern elements in butterfly wings, although Dll alone may not be sufficient to induce a complete eyespot.
Multiple approaches to study color pattern evolution in butterflies
TLDR
The different approaches to answer both proximate and ultimate questions about butterfly wing pattern evolution are reviewed, and future research directions in a field that has the potential to become truly integrative are highlighted.
Patterns on the insect wing.
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