Contrast-enhanced transcranial Doppler ultrasound for diagnosis of patent foramen ovale.

@article{Nedeltchev2006ContrastenhancedTD,
  title={Contrast-enhanced transcranial Doppler ultrasound for diagnosis of patent foramen ovale.},
  author={Krassen Nedeltchev and H P Mattle},
  journal={Frontiers of neurology and neuroscience},
  year={2006},
  volume={21},
  pages={206-15}
}
The suspected cause of clinical manifestations of patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a transient or a permanent right-to-left shunt (RLS). Contrast-enhanced transcranial Doppler ultrasound (c-TCD) is a reliable alternative to transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) for diagnosis of PFO, and enables also the detection of extracardiac RLS. The air-containing echo contrast agents are injected intravenously and do not pass the pulmonary circulation. In the presence of RLS, the contrast agents bypass the… CONTINUE READING

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