Contraceptive sterilization in Puerto Rico

  title={Contraceptive sterilization in Puerto Rico},
  author={Charles W. Warren and Charles F. Westoff and Joan M. Herold and Roger Rochat and Jack C. Smith},
For twenty years Puerto Rico has had the world’s highest prevalence of sterilization. From the 1982 Puerto Rico Fertility and Family Planning Assessment we examine whether the probability of obtaining sterilization is changing and what impact sterilization has on fertility, finding that the use of contraceptive sterilization has not declined and will probably continue to increase in Puerto Rico. Nonuse rather than temporary methods of contraception is the second most likely circumstance after… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Solidarity, vulnerability and mistrust: how context, information and government affect the lives of women in times of Zika
The findings call for public health interventions that go beyond individual level behavioral change campaigns, to more comprehensively address the broader meso and macro level factors that influence women’ willingness and possibility to protect themselves.
“Every time I tell my story I learn something new”: Voice and inclusion in research with Black women with histories of substance use and incarceration
While current ethical procedures aim to minimize risks to imprisoned individuals, there is heightened awareness of the need to protect those who participate in research post-incarceration while under
Early relational health - A promising approach for equitable systems change in pediatrics: A commentary.
This Commentary offers a call to action for pediatric primary care to create more equitable and inclusive practice via ERH and includes deepening self and institutional awareness; allocating resources for systems change, including infusing greater equity into departmental structures; and, building authentic relationships with patients, families, and communities.
This report is for development of CBT software especially for the student lower secondary school using development iteratively such as Rational Unffied Process (RUP) as a methodology to get the best result.


Female sterilization in Puerto Rico and its demographic effectiveness.
Estimates show that while high fertility is an important motivation for sterilization sterilization has a negative effect on fertility in the long run.
Puerto Rico: recent trends in fertility and sterilization.
  • H. Presser
  • Economics
    Family planning perspectives
  • 1980
Levels of female sterilization in Puerto Rico appear to have peaked in the late 1960s, declining slightly in the early 1970s, and levels of sterilized women in 1974 were almost as high as those in 1965.
Illustrative analysis: contraceptive sterilization and births averted in Panama.
Sterilization most often is sought between the 5th and 14th years of marriage between ages 25-34 and some concentration is found between the 3rd and 5th child.
Voluntary sterilization: an international fact book.
The data shows that voluntary sterilization is often the method of choice for couples who decide they definitely do not want any more children, and more voluntary Sterilization programs with good quality control and policies which are non restrictive are needed.
Fertility and family planning surveys: an update.
The survey findings provide evidence of the importance of birth spacing to infant and child survival and suggest that making family planning supplies and services more available increases their use and women who can obtain services close by are more likely to use family planning.
Understanding U.S. fertility: findings from the National Survey of Family Growth, Cycle III.
Black women are now more likely than white women to use the most effective female methods: female sterilization, pill, and IUD, and premarital sexual activity may be leveling off among white teenagers after a steep rise since the early 1970s and declining moderately among black teenagers.
Minilaparotomy and laparoscopy: safe, effective, and widely used.
Medical policies that restrict sterilization to women who have had a specified number of children or whose health would be damaged by further pregnancies should be dropped and the quality and availability of sterilization services should be regularly evaluated.
1952.Backgrounds ofHuman Fertility in Puerto Rico
  • 1959.The Family and Population Control. Chapel Hill: University
  • 1959
Sterilization and Fertility Decline in Puerto Rico
1984.Data for commentary on voluntary surgical contraception in Latin America
  • 1984