Contraceptive Vaccines for Wildlife: A Review

  title={Contraceptive Vaccines for Wildlife: A Review},
  author={Jay F. Kirkpatrick and Robin O. Lyda and Kimberly M Frank},
  journal={American Journal of Reproductive Immunology},
Citation Kirkpatrick JF, Lyda RO, Frank KM. Contraceptive vaccines for wildlife: a review. Am J Reprod Immunol 2011; 66: 40–50 
Fertility control in wildlife: review of current status, including novel and future technologies.
This review will focus on recent novel contraception together with future technologies that may provide additional contraceptive methods to address overpopulation of selected groups of animals.
Wildlife population management: are contraceptive vaccines a feasible proposition?
To minimize human-animal conflicts for habitation and burden of zoonotic diseases, it is imperative to develop new strategies for wildlife population management. In this direction, contraceptive
The immune profile induced is crucial to determine the effects of immunocastration over gonadal function, fertility, and GnRH‐I expression
Immunocastration or vaccination against the GnRH‐I hormone is a promising alternative to reproductive control in different animal species. Given the low immunogenicity of this hormone, the use of
Prospects for immunocontraception in feral horse population control: exploring novel targets for an equine fertility vaccine.
Feral horses populate vast land areas and often induce significant ecological and economic damage throughout the landscape. Non-lethal population control methods are considered favourable in light of
Research is being conducted to develop a GnRH vaccine used in combination with the rabies vaccine to control population growth in free-roaming dogs, with the secondary effect of managing the spread of rabies.
Immunocontraceptive Reproductive Control Utilizing Porcine Zona Pellucida (PZP) in Federal Wild Horse Populations
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Effects of two porcine zona pellucida immunocontraceptive vaccines on ovarian activity in horses
Based on this study, the SpayVac formulations impair ovarian function but do not affect other major organ systems, and could provide a safe and effective immunocontraceptive option for mares.
Reimmunization increases contraceptive effectiveness of gonadotropin-releasing hormone vaccine (GonaCon-Equine) in free-ranging horses (Equus caballus): Limitations and side effects
The research suggests that practical application of this vaccine in feral horses will require an initial inoculation that may provide only modest suppression of fertility followed by reimmunization that together could result in greater reduction in population growth rates over time.
Porcine zona pellucida vaccine immunocontraception of African elephant (Loxodonta africana) cows: A review of 22 years of research
Contraceptive efficacy and safety of pZP vaccine could be demonstrated in small to large populations and is now being implemented in approximately 800 cows on 26 reserves across South Arica.


ORIGINAL ARTICLE: The Single‐Shot GnRH Immunocontraceptive Vaccine (GonaCon™) in White‐Tailed Deer: Comparison of Several GnRH Preparations
Problem  An effective, single‐injection, multi‐year, GnRH contraceptive agent is needed to control reproduction in overabundant white‐tailed deer populations.
Virus-vectored immunocontraception of feral mammals.
Key questions about the efficacy of fertility control and the means for delivering antigens expressed in recombinant viral vectors are discussed and the legal and social concerns that relate to its possible future use are raised.
Chemical Fertility Control and Wildlife Management
A large number of new contraceptive agents, designed primarily for use in humans, can be administered remotely by injection to large mammals or orally to smaller animals.
lmmunosterilization for Wild Rabbits: The Options
Using the rabbit, the mortality agents, expressing genes for specific sterilization could be more effective than conventional reproductive antigens in control of wildlife pest populations by infectious recombinant virus.
Immunocontraception of African elephants
An immunocontraceptive vaccine from pig zona pellucida is developed which safely and successfully controls free-roaming African elephants.
Effects of immunocontraception on population, longevity and body condition in wild mares (Equus caballus).
Management-level treatment of mares with porcine zona pellucida vaccine resulted in zero population growth of the Assateague Island wild horse population within 1 year of initiation of treatment.
Immunocontraception and increased longevity in equids.
An examination of direct effects of fertility control on two groups of treated animals shows a significant increase in longevity over non-treated animals that is associated with contraceptive treatment.
Reversibility of action and safety during pregnancy of immunization against porcine zona pellucida in wild mares (Equus caballus).
A population of wild horses has been immunized against porcine zona pellucida over a 12 year period on Assateague Island, MD and there was no difference in survival rates between foals born to treated and untreated mares, and PZP treatment of pregnant mares did not affect subsequent fertility of their female offspring.