2216 newborns and prematures with respiratory distress of different underlying diseases were treated with long term respiratory therapy from 1. Jan. 1975 to 31. Dec. 1985. One part of the patients were born in our hospital, the other part of them were transported from outside. The rate of prematures was 81.2%. The respiratory therapy was applied in 1813 cases because of pulmonary diseases (group 1.), while in 403 cases the respiratory troubles were extrapulmonary in origin (group 2.). The diseases in the first group were as follows: hyaline membrane disease in 482 cases (27.30%), intrauterine pneumonia in 634 cases (34.64%), postnatal pneumonia in 291 cases (15.90%), meconium aspiration syndrome in 110 cases (6.01%), severe RDS-II in 158 cases (8.63%), pulmonary immaturity in 116 cases (6.35%), persistent fetal circulation in 21 cases (1.15%) and pulmonary aplasia on the left in 1 case (0.021%). In the second group the greatest part of the cases were treated for neurological disturbances. We discuss the indications of different types of respiratory therapy and the complications as well. The survival rate was in the first group 59.3%, while in the second only 16.9%. Therefore the respiratory therapy seems to be more effective in the pulmonary diseases of the newborns. The mortality rate and the rate of severe complications were lower among inborn babies because of the early application of the respiratory therapy.