Continuous fetal heart rate monitoring during late gestation in cattle by means of Doppler ultrasonography: reference values obtained by computer-assisted analysis.


Continuous fetal heart rate (FHR) monitoring using transabdominal Doppler ultrasonography can be assumed to provide information about the viability of the bovine fetus during late gestation, as has been found in humans. To be able to recognize unfavourable fetal conditions, first the normal ranges of FHR parameters in cattle should be established. Therefore… (More)


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