Continuous cultures of fused cells secreting antibody of predefined specificity

  title={Continuous cultures of fused cells secreting antibody of predefined specificity},
  author={Georges K{\"o}hler and C{\'e}sar Milstein},
THE manufacture of predefined specific antibodies by means of permanent tissue culture cell lines is of general interest. There are at present a considerable number of permanent cultures of myeloma cells1,2 and screening procedures have been used to reveal antibody activity in some of them. This, however, is not a satisfactory source of monoclonal antibodies of predefined specificity. We describe here the derivation of a number of tissue culture cell lines which secrete anti-sheep red blood… 

Production of antibodies of monoclonal specificity without the use of hybridoma cell lines

In this technique an antibody-secreting plasma cell, isolated from an immunized animal, is fused with an immortal myeloma cell and are the source of monoclonal antibodies which currently provide the most reproducible and well characterized antibodies for immunodiagnostics.

Immunization and fusion protocols for hybridoma production.

  • J. Wood
  • Biology
    Methods in molecular biology
  • 1984
Kohler and Milsteins' technique of monoclonal antibody production is now being exploited in most areas of biology, to immortalize and then select for clones of plasma cells secreting antibody against a desired antigen.

Production of hybrid lines secreting monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibodies by cell fusion on membrane filters.

This method describes this method, analyze some parameters which control its efficiency for the production of intraspecific and interspecific hybrids and demonstrates that it can be successfully utilized for the isolation of hybridomas secreting anti-idiotypic antibodies.

Production of Monoclonal Antibodies

  • W. Yokoyama
  • Biology
    Current protocols in cell biology
  • 2001
This unit describes the production of monoclonal antibodies beginning with basic protocols for immunization and cell fusion and selection and support protocols are provided for screening primary hybridoma supernatants for antibodies of desired specificity.

Antibodies to major histocompatibility antigens produced by hybrid cell lines

FUSION between myeloma cells and spleen cells from immunised donors has been shown to be a successful method of deriving homogeneous anti-SRBC (anti-sheep red blood cell) and anti-TNP antibodies1,2.

Production of Monoclonal Antibodies

The vast majority of monoclonal antibodies are derived from mouse cells, although it is also possible to produce them from rat cells.

A better cell line for making hybridomas secreting specific antibodies

The identification of such a cell line, Sp2/0-Ag14, is reported here the identification of a tumour cell fusion partner that makes no Ig but which can nevertheless be fused with spleen cells to obtain hybrids secreting only the specific antibody.

The growth of publications on monoclonal antibodies 1975–1981

The aim was to show the rise in publications since 1975 on the one hand and to find the most important journals containing articles on this subject on the other hand, based on an online search in the US database BIOSIS.

Monoclonal antibodies derived from hybrid myelomas

  • M. Clark
  • Biology
    La Ricerca in clinica e in laboratorio
  • 1981
Production of human monoclonal antibodies is at present limited by the lack of suitable parental myeloma cell lines although some success has been reported using both mouse and human cell lines.



Somatic mutation and the origin of antibody diversity. Clonal variability of the immunoglobulin produced by MOPC 21 cells in culture

A method has been developed for the screening of immunoglobulins produced by large numbers of individual clones of the mouse myeloma in tissue culture using autoradiography to detect variations between different clones.

Fusion of Two Immunoglobulin-producing Myeloma Cells

It is demonstrated that fusion between two immunoglobulin-secreting cell lines produces hybrid cells which secrete immunoglOBulin of both parental types.

Pattern of immunoglobulin synthesis and assembly in a human-mouse somatic cell hybrid clone.

  • J. SchwaberE. Cohen
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1974
Analysis of fusion of human peripheral blood lymphocytes with mouse myeloma cells yielded a somatic cell hybrid clone that secreted both human and mouse immunoglobulins that synthesized human gamma and alpha heavy chains and human light chains, as well as mouse alphaheavy chains and mouse light chains.

Plaque Formation in Agar by Single Antibody-Producing Cells

Distinct plaques, each of which is due to the release of hemolysin by a single antibody-forming cell, are revealed by complement after incubation, in an agar layer, of a mixture of sheep red cells

Selection of Hybrids from Matings of Fibroblasts in vitro and Their Presumed Recombinants

Evidence can be obtained which suggests that mating may be followed by segregation in mice, and when two clonal lines of mouse fibroblasts are grown together for 4 days, hybrid cells can be detected by selective conditions.

The complete amino acid sequence of a mouse ϰ light chain

The complete amino acid sequence of the kappa-chain of the mouse myeloma protein MOPC 21 was established. The protein was reduced and alkylated with iodo[2-(14)C]acetic acid, and 21 tryptic peptides

Partial Deletion in the Heavy Chain Disease Protein ZUC

The sequence of the first fifty-five residues of protein ZUC (γ3 subclass) is presented and a stretch of the myeloma protein KUP which includes the five interchain S—S bonds characteristic of IgG3 proteins7 is compared.

Isoelectric Focusing in Polyacrylamide Gel and its Application to Immunoglobulins

In this form the technique has been successfully applied to studies on the heterogeneity of myoglobins, cytochrome c6, lactoperoxidase7 and a number of other proteins (see review by Haglund8).

Hybrid Cells Derived from Mouse and Man : Artificial Heterokaryons of Mammalian Cells from Different Species

Hybrid Cells Derived from Mouse and Man : Artificial Heterokaryons of Mammalian Cells from Different Species is presented, which describes how cells from different species can be hybrids.