Continuous amphetamine intoxication: an animal model of the acute psychotic episode

  title={Continuous amphetamine intoxication: an animal model of the acute psychotic episode},
  author={Gaylord D. Ellison and Michael S. Eison},
  journal={Psychological Medicine},
  pages={751 - 761}
Synopsis When amphetamines are administered to humans every few hours for several days, either during the ‘speed runs’ of addicts or in controlled laboratory settings, the psychosis which reliably results is similar to paranoid schizophrenia in a number of important aspects. This unique regimen of drug intake, which involves the continuous presence of stimulants over a prolonged period of time, can be simulated in animals using subcutaneously implanted slow-release silicone pellets containing d… 

An Escalating Dose “Binge” Model of Amphetamine Psychosis: Behavioral and Neurochemical Characteristics

It is proposed that this model more closely resembles clinical manifestations of amphetamine psychosis and that the alterations may reflect a shift in the relative activation of mesolimbic and nigro-striatal dopamine pathways.

Repeated binge exposures to amphetamine and methamphetamine: behavioral and neurochemical characterization.

  • D. SegalR. Kuczenski
  • Psychology, Biology
    The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics
  • 1997
This treatment of rats exposed to an escalating dose-run pattern of amphetamine administration resulted in a unique behavioral profile, including a profound increase in the relative expression of locomotion vs. stereotypy, and the possible relationship between these behavioral and neurochemical changes and their implications for high dose patterns of stimulant abuse are discussed.

Psychological and Psychiatric Consequences of Amphetamines

“Speed Freak,” a name for chronic and high-dose amphetamine abusers made popular in the late 1960s was a result of the bizarre behavior they often displayed, and similar behavior continues to be seen in association with both intravenous and the increasing popular inhaled misuse of this drug.

Latent inhibition, but not prepulse inhibition, is reduced during withdrawal from an escalating dosage schedule of amphetamine.

An interrelationship between repeated-AMPH and LI-disruption, but not PPI-disrupt, models of schizophrenia is supported.

Animal models of amphetamine psychosis: neurotransmitter release from rat brain slices.

The results indicate that amphetamine profoundly affects the brain dopaminergic systems but less the glutamatergic systems, and the GABAergic systems seem to be more sensitive to handling stress than to the administration of amphetamine.

Behavioral Pharmacology of Amphetamines

Originally sold as a bronchodilator in the early 1930s, amphetamine soon became known for its stimulant effects on behavior (Angrist, 1983). The drug has been used to overcome fatigue and to improve



The experimental reproduction of amphetamine psychosis.

  • D. Bell
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Archives of general psychiatry
  • 1973
A large dose of intravenous methamphetamine hydrochloride reproduced the amphetamine psychosis in 12 of 14 patients dependent on amphetamine sulfate and failed to produce a psychosis in two patients

Comparison of Amphetamine Psychosis and Schizophrenia

  • D. Bell
  • Psychology, Medicine
    British Journal of Psychiatry
  • 1965
Amphetamine psychosis arising during the course of long-continued amphetamine addiction resembles paranoid schizophrenia andAuditory and visual hallucinations occur in a setting of clear consciousness and correct orientation.

Dextroamphetamine. Evaluation of psychomimetic properties in man.

Surprisingly, it was found that large long-term doses of dextroamphetamine caused the subjects to feel depressed rather than elated, which suggests that while the short-term effects of deXTroamphetamine might be explained as a potentiation of catecholamines, the long- term effects of the drug may result from depletion of the central nervous system's stores ofcatecholamine.

Amphetamine abuse. Pattern and effects of high doses taken intravenously.

Tolerance builds rapidly and an abstinence syndrome develops which leads to a typical pattern in which the user takes the drug continuously and in immense doses for about five days during which he does not sleep.

Amphetamine-induced dopaminergic hypersensitivity in guinea pigs. Implications in psychosis and human movement disorders.

Following chronic amphetamine pretreatment, guinea pigs demonstrate an increased sensitivity to both d-amphetamine sulfate- and apomorphine hydrochloride-induced stereotyped behavior. This

Long-term amphetamine treatment decreases brain serotonin metabolism: implications for theories of schizophrenia.

Long-term amphetamine administration to cats produced large decreases in serotonin and its major metabolite, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, in all brain regions examined and produced several behaviors that are dependent on depressed central serotonergic neurotransmission and which normally are elicited exclusively by hallucinogenic drugs.