Contingency checking and self-directed behaviors in giant manta rays: Do elasmobranchs have self-awareness?

@article{Ari2016ContingencyCA,
  title={Contingency checking and self-directed behaviors in giant manta rays: Do elasmobranchs have self-awareness?},
  author={C. Ari and D. D'Agostino},
  journal={Journal of Ethology},
  year={2016},
  volume={34},
  pages={167-174}
}
Elaborate cognitive skills arose independently in different taxonomic groups. [...] Key Method In this study, mirror exposure experiments were conducted on two captive giant manta rays to document their response to their mirror image. The manta rays did not show signs of social interaction with their mirror image. However, frequent unusual and repetitive movements in front of the mirror suggested contingency checking; in addition, unusual self-directed behaviors could be identified when the manta rays were…Expand

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