Context-dependent memory in two natural environments: on land and underwater.

  title={Context-dependent memory in two natural environments: on land and underwater.},
  author={Duncan Godden and Alan D Baddeley},
  journal={British Journal of Psychology},
In a free recall experiment, divers learnt lists of words in two natural environments: on dry land and underwater, and recalled the words in either the environment of original learning, or in the alternative environment. Lists learnt underwater were best recalled underwater, and vice versa. A subsequent experiment shows that the disruption of moving from one environment to the other was unlikely to be responsible for context-dependent memory. 

Effects of Environmental Context on Recognition Memory in An Unusual Environment

Environmental context is thought to influence recognition memory in relatively few cases, and it is an empirical matter to determine the conditions under which a positive effect occurs. Amateur

Environmental context—dependent memory.

The impact on recall of reinstatement or change of the environment existing at the time of learning is reviewed. While strong and stable effects have been observed for recall, effects on recognition

Context-dependent memory effects in two immersive virtual reality environments: On Mars and underwater

It is shown that items are better recalled when retrieved in the same context as the study context, and the size of the effect is larger for items deemed context-relevant at encoding, suggesting that context-dependent memory effects may depend on items being integrated into an active schema.

The Godden and Baddeley (1975) experiment on context-dependent memory on land and underwater: a replication

  • J. Murre
  • Psychology
    Royal Society Open Science
  • 2021
A replication of the experiment by Godden and Baddeley on environmental context-dependent memory did not find that recall in the same context where the words had been learned was better than Recall in the other context.

Environmental context and recognition memory reconsidered

This study demonstrated that environmental-context(EC)-dependent memory can occur with recognition memory. In Experiment 1, five lists were presented, each in a different room, and recognition memory

Environmental context-dependent recognition memory using a short-term memory task for input

The results suggest that type of processing during input is a predictor of context-dependent recognition; material studied for a long-term memory test is not susceptible to background context effects, whereas material merely maintained for a short-termMemory test is more apt to lead to EC- dependent recognition.

Environmental context and human memory

Five experiments examined the effects of environmental context on recall and recognition. In Experiment 1, variability of input environments produced higher free recall performance than unchanged

The relative value of environmental context reinstatement in free recall

The effect of environmental context on episodic memory was examined in two free recall experiments with groups of old and young subjects. All subjects studied a list of unrelated words and were

Context-Dependent Memory

JL he theory of context-dependent memory was initially developed by McGeoch (1942) to account for the apparent forgetting of information. According to this theory, forgetting is explained as a



Contextual stimuli and proactive inhibition

A special box was constructed making it possible for undergraduates to learn and recall in either of 2 distinctive environments, the other environment being a conventional memory drum. 3 experiments

Retention following a Change in Ambient Contextual Stimuli for Six Age Groups.

144 male and 144 female students attending Grades 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 serially learned a list of 8 nonsense syllables. All Ss were tested for retention after 24 hr. The ambient contextual stimuli

Underwater Work Performance and Work Tolerance.

Abstract : The report presents findings of the research efforts for 1971 in the study of underwater work performance and work tolerance conducted at the University of California, Los Angeles. The