Context-Based Operational Transformation in Distributed Collaborative Editing Systems

  title={Context-Based Operational Transformation in Distributed Collaborative Editing Systems},
  author={David Sun and Chengzheng Sun},
  journal={IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems},
  • David SunChengzheng Sun
  • Published 1 October 2009
  • Computer Science
  • IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
Operational Transformation (OT) is a consistency maintenance technique for collaborative editing systems-a special class of distributed applications for supporting human-computer-human interaction and collaboration over communication networks. [] Key Method In this paper, we analyze the limitation of the causality theory, propose a novel theory of operation context as the new foundation for OT systems, and present a new OT algorithm-Context-based OT (COT)-which provides uniform and efficient solutions to…

Figures and Tables from this paper

ABTS: A transformation-based consistency control algorithm for wide-area collaborative applications

  • Bin ShaoDu LiNing Gu
  • Computer Science
    2009 5th International Conference on Collaborative Computing: Networking, Applications and Worksharing
  • 2009
This paper proposes a novel OT algorithm that addresses the above two challenges as follows: first, it is based on a recent theoretical framework with formal conditions such that its correctness can be proved, and secondly, it supports two string-based primitive operations and handles overlapping and splitting of operations.

Achieving Data Consistency by Contextualization in Web-Based Collaborative Applications

This article presents a data consistency maintenance solution capable of meeting the requirements of fast local response, total work preservation, unconstrained interaction, and customizable collaboration mode for collaborative Web-based applications.

Modeling and Simulation of an Operational Transformation Algorithm Using Finite State Machines

  • C. GadeaB. IonescuD. Ionescu
  • Computer Science
    2018 IEEE 12th International Symposium on Applied Computational Intelligence and Informatics (SACI)
  • 2018
The processes involved in the client-server interactions of OT are modeled as real-time systems using Finite State Machine (FSM) theory and the approach is shown to be helpful for organizing and managing the complex distributed aspects of such algorithms.

Supporting String-Wise Operations and Selective Undo for Peer-to-Peer Group Editing

This paper presents an approach that combines and extends OT and CRDT strengths and supports string-wise editing operations and selective undo, and shows that it provides sufficient responsiveness to the end-users.

A Survey on Operational Transformation Algorithms: Challenges, Issues and Achievements

An integrative review of the evolution of operational transformation techniques is presented, discusses major issues, algorithms, achievements and remaining challenges, and does a comparative study of various algorithms of OT based on different parameters.

Formal Verification of Operational Transformation

This work formally model the OT-based collaborative editing systems and establishes their correctness, w.r.t. convergence and intention preservation, using a set of well-defined transformation conditions and properties, and uses model checking to verify the transformation properties for basic data and operational models.

A Control Loop-based Algorithm for Operational Transformation

  • C. GadeaB. IonescuD. Ionescu
  • Computer Science
    2020 IEEE 14th International Symposium on Applied Computational Intelligence and Informatics (SACI)
  • 2020
A Control Loop-based OT approach based on a serverless architecture and on Finite State Automata (FSA) is proposed, used to design a series of algorithms for distributed conflict resolution.

A Fast Operational Transformation Algorithm for Mobile and Asynchronous Collaboration

This paper presents a novel transformation-based merging algorithm that can merge any updates to the same file automatically at the finest granularity without causing loss of work and improves the time complexity of the state-of-the-art transformation- based merging algorithms from O(n3) to O( n), where n is the size of either sequence when their sizes are comparable.



Operation context and context-based operational transformation

The theory of operation context and the COT (Context-based OT) algorithm, a new theoretical framework for better understanding and resolving OT problems, reducing its complexity, and supporting its continual evolution are reported.

Customizable Collaborative Editor Relying on treeOPT Algorithm

The treeOPT (tree OPerational Transformation) algorithm is proposed that, relying on a tree representation of documents, applies the operational transformation mechanism recursively over the different document levels.

Operational transformation for collaborative word processing

An extension of OT is reported for supporting a generic Update operation, in addition to Insert and Delete operations, for collaborative word processing, which is relevant not only to word processors but also to a range of interactive applications that can be modelled as editors.

Flexible notification for collaborative systems

A flexible notification framework is contributed that can be used to describe and compare a range of notification strategies used in existing collaborative systems, and to guide the design of notification components for new collaborative systems.

A framework for undoing actions in collaborative systems

A general framework for implementing undo in collaborative systems is proposed, which allows users to reverse their own changes individually, taking into account the possibility of conflicts between different users' operations that may prevent an undo.

Achieving convergence, causality preservation, and intention preservation in real-time cooperative editing systems

A consistency model, with properties of convergence, causality preservation, and intention preservation, is proposed as a framework for consistency maintenance in real-time cooperative editing systems and an integrated set of schemes and algorithms are devised.

Flexible collaboration transparency: supporting worker independence in replicated application-sharing systems

This article presents a critique of conventional collaboration transparency systems, which provide the real-time shared use of legacy single-user applications, and presents an alternative approach to implementing collaboration transparency that provides many features previously seen only in collaboration-aware applicaitons.

A performance study of group editing algorithms

  • Du LiRui Li
  • Computer Science
    12th International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Systems - (ICPADS'06)
  • 2006
The experimental results show the extent to which current OT algorithms support synchronous and asynchronous group editing and reveal that the performance of OT actually depends on a number of factors.

A time interval based consistency control algorithm for interactive groupware applications

  • Rui LiDu LiChengzheng Sun
  • Computer Science
    Proceedings. Tenth International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Systems, 2004. ICPADS 2004.
  • 2004
This paper presents a time interval based operational transformation algorithm (TIBOT) that overcomes the various limitations of previous related work and guarantees content convergence and is significantly more simple and efficient than existing approaches.

An integrating, transformation-oriented approach to concurrency control and undo in group editors

An improved version of an existing distributed algorithm for concurrency control that is based on operation transformations is presented and a set of necessary and sufficient conditions to be satisfied in order to ensure consistency in a replicated architecture is presented.