Contemporary Encephalitis Lethargica: Phenotype, laboratory findings and treatment outcomes

  title={Contemporary Encephalitis Lethargica: Phenotype, laboratory findings and treatment outcomes},
  author={Robert Lopez-Alberola and Mike F. Georgiou and George Sfakianakis and Carlos Singer and Spyridon Papapetropoulos},
  journal={Journal of Neurology},
BackgroundEncephalitis lethargica (EL) is a CNS disorder that manifests with lethargy sleep cycle disturbances, extrapyramidal symptomatology, neuropsychiatric manifestations, ocular features and cardio-respiratory abnormalities. [] Key Method Against this background we conducted a study aiming to elucidate the clinical characteristics, describe laboratory/ neuroimaging findings (MRI, PET) and present treatment options and outcomes in sporadic EL.MethodsPatients were diagnosed over a period of 3 years using…

Enfermedad de Von Economo: Caso clínico

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Basal Ganglia Autoimmune Encephalitis Following Leptospirosis

A child who had a fever with focal seizures followed by behavioral problems, rigidity, bradykinesia, and dystonia was diagnosed with post-leptospirosis autoimmune basal ganglia encephalitis and was managed with immunomodulatory agents.

A role for pathogen risk factors and autoimmunity in encephalitis lethargica?

The neuropsychological profile of children with basal ganglia encephalitis: a case series

Although all patients made significant motor recoveries, all four cases displayed executive dysfunction, fine motor difficulties, and anxiety, and the case who received intravenous immunoglobulin treatment and steroids during the acute phase of the disease had the best cognitive outcome.

Encephalitis lethargica (von Economo's encephalitis).

SARS-CoV-2-related encephalitis with prominent parkinsonism: clinical and FDG-PET correlates in two patients

Clinical and neuroimaging findings suggest that SARS-CoV-2 infection may trigger an encephalitis with prominent parkinsonism and distinctive brain metabolic alterations.

Review: Neuropathology of acute phase encephalitis lethargica: a review of cases from the epidemic period

Putative modern cases of acute EL with MRI/CT indicated lesions confined solely to the midbrain, brainstem, and/or basal ganglia should not be considered, consistent with that reported during epidemic period.

Evidence for an enterovirus as the cause of encephalitis lethargica

The hypothesis that the VLP observed in EL tissue is an Enterovirus is supported by the data presented here.

The Neuropsychiatric Consequences of Childhood Encephalitis: A Review of Cases from Middle-Eastern Countries

Although encephalitis may be an important cause of delirium and dementia as well as other psychopathology in childhood, those diagnoses present a diagnostic challenge to most child and adolescent psychiatrists leading to missed diagnoses.



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It is suggested that steroid treatment should be considered in the acute phase of patients with features suggestive of encephalitis lethargica, as well as the medical management of both patients, which responded rapidly and dramatically to intravenous methylprednisolone.

Encephalitis lethargica syndrome: 20 new cases and evidence of basal ganglia autoimmunity.

Investigation found no evidence of viral encephalitis or other recognized causes of rapid-onset parkinsonism, and investigated the possibility that this phenotype could be a postinfectious autoimmune CNS disorder, and therefore similar to Sydenham's chorea.

Encephalitis lethargica like illness: case report and literature review.

Recent studies have revealed that encephalitis lethargica (EL) may not be related to influenza virus infection but more likely to be a post-infectious autoimmune disease. The diagnostic clinical

Encephalitis lethargica following Bartonella henselae infection

The diagnosis EL was established and serological studies were not suspicious for a large panel of agents including CMV, Herpes simplex, Human Herpesvirus 6, VZV, EBV, HIV, Measles, Enteroviruses, Listeria monocytogenes and Rubella.

Steroid-responsive encephalitis lethargica syndrome with malignant catatonia.

Intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy improved a 47-year-old man who is considered to have sporadic encephalitis lethargica (EL) and diagnosed secondary malignant catatonia due to EL syndrome, which may be secondary to autoimmunity against deep grey matter.

Sporadic encephalitis lethargica

A contemporary case of encephalitis lethargica.

An active encephalitis, mainly centered on the upper brainstem and diencephalon with extensive Purkinje cell loss and marked plasma cell infiltrates and morula cells was revealed and no virus was recovered.

Malignant catatonia secondary to sporadic encephalitis lethargica

  • H. ShillM. Stacy
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry
  • 2000
A patient is presented with features of sporadic encephalitis lethargica and management of this entity in the context of catatonia, a neuropsychiatric syndrome characterised by a combination of psychosocial withdrawal and various movement disorders.

Encephalitis lethargica: part of a spectrum of post-streptococcal autoimmune diseases?

  • A. Vincent
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Brain : a journal of neurology
  • 2004
Patients with a condition presenting with sleep disorder, lethargy, Parkinsonism and neuropsychiatric disorders, including mutism, anxiety, depression, obsessions and compulsions are described.

Anti–basal ganglia antibodies in acute and persistent Sydenham’s chorea

Western immunoblotting and immunofluorescence are the best methods for detecting anti–basal ganglia antibodies, and reactivity to basal ganglia antigens of 40, 45, and 60 kDa were commonly seen in both acute and persistent cases of SC.