Contact sensitization to limonene and linalool hydroperoxides in Spain: a GEIDAC* prospective study

@article{Deza2017ContactST,
  title={Contact sensitization to limonene and linalool hydroperoxides in Spain: a GEIDAC* prospective study},
  author={Gustavo Deza and Bego{\~n}a Garc{\'i}a‐Bravo and Juan F Silvestre and Mar{\'i}a-Antonia Pastor-Nieto and Ricardo Gonz{\'a}lez‐P{\'e}rez and Felipe Heras-Mendaza and Pedro Mercader and Virginia Fern{\'a}ndez-Redondo and Bo Niklasson and Ana Mar{\'i}a Gim{\'e}nez-Arnau},
  journal={Contact Dermatitis},
  year={2017},
  volume={76}
}
Limonene and linalool are common fragrance terpenes widely used in cosmetic, household and hygiene products. Their primary oxidation products formed after air exposure, the hydroperoxides, have been recognized as important contact haptens. 

Contact sensitization to hydroperoxides of limonene and linalool: Results of consecutive patch testing and clinical relevance

Hydroperoxides of limonene and linalool are potent sensitizers and are known to cause skin irritation and itching in animals and people allergic to these compounds.

Allergic contact dermatitis caused by hydroperoxides of limonene and dose‐response relationship—A repeated open application test (ROAT) study

Contact allergy to oxidized limonene, with hydroperoxides of limonene (Lim‐OOHs) as the main allergens, is common. However, high proportions of weak positive and doubtful patch test reactions have

Linalool Hydroperoxides.

  • A. D. de Groot
  • Chemistry
    Dermatitis : contact, atopic, occupational, drug
  • 2019
By routine testing of patients suspected of having contact dermatitis with hydroperoxides of linalool, high frequencies of positive reactions were found, indicating these chemicals are important fragrance allergens.

Important New Fragrance Allergens. II. Limonene Hydroperoxides.

  • A. D. de Groot
  • Chemistry
    Dermatitis : contact, atopic, occupational, drug
  • 2019
By routine testing of patients suspected of contact dermatitis with hydroperoxides of limonene, high frequencies of positive reactions were found, indicating that these chemicals are important fragrance allergens.

Contact sensitization to essential oils: IVDK data of the years 2010–2019

Essential oils (EOs) are widely used in cosmetics, perfumes, massage fluids, aroma therapy and natural medicine. Some EOs contain contact sensitizers.

Patch testing with purified and oxidized citronellol

Citronellol hydroperoxides are formed in large amounts and are the only oxidation products identified as sensitizers in oxidized citroneLLol.

Contact allergy to fragrance mix I and its components in individuals with photocontact allergy to ketoprofen

Contact allergy to fragrance mix I (FM I) is over‐represented in patients photoallergic to ketoprofen. The prevalence of contact allergy to two components of FM I, cinnamal and cinnamyl alcohol, in

Sensitization potential and potency of terpene hydroperoxides in the cocultured activation test method

Positive patch test reactions to mixtures of oxidized terpenes containing allergenic hydroperoxides are frequently reported. However, human sensitization data for these hydroperoxides are not

Sensitization to fragrances in Spain: A 5‐year multicentre study (2011‐2015)

Fragrance chemicals constitute the second most frequent cause of contact allergy in Spain. There are no data available concerning the individual fragrances that are most frequently involved.

Non‐mix fragrances are top sensitizers in consecutive dermatitis patients – a cross‐sectional study of the 26 EU‐labelled fragrance allergens

For cosmetics, it is mandatory to label 26 fragrance substances, including all constituents of fragrance mix I (FM I) and fragrance mix II (FM II), and breakdown testing of FM I and FM II has mainly been performed in selected, mix‐positive patients.
...

References

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Oxidized limonene and oxidized linalool – concomitant contact allergy to common fragrance terpenes

Both oxidized R‐limonene and oxidized linalool have recently been patch tested in an international setting, showing contact allergy in 5.2% and 6.9% of dermatitis patients, respectively.

Allergy to oxidized limonene and linalool is frequent in the U.K.

Patch testing to oxidized terpenes to cause allergic contact dermatitis is not routinely carried out either in the U.K. or in other centres internationally.

Air‐oxidized linalool–a frequent cause of fragrance contact allergy

In a Swedish study, oxidized linalool 6.0% in petrolatum (pet.) gave 5% positive patch test reactions in 2500 dermatitis patients, suggesting contact allergy can cause contact allergy.

Linalool – a significant contact sensitizer after air exposure

Oxidized (ox.) linalool has previously been patch tested at a concentration of 2.0% in petrolatum (pet.) in 1511 patients, and 1.3% positive patch test reactions were observed.

Occupational contact dermatitis caused by D‐limonene

Oxidized limonene is a frequent contact allergen among consumers of cosmetics, personal care products, and scented household cleaning products and less is known about the sources of occupational exposure and occupational contact dermatitis caused by limonenes.

Air‐oxidized linalool elicits eczema in allergic patients – a repeated open application test study

It is found that 7% of 2900 patients showed positive patch test reactions to oxidized linalool at 6.0% in a recent multicentre study, and elicitation studies have been performed.

An international multicentre study on the allergenic activity of air‐oxidized R‐limonene

Oxidized R‐limonene has previously been patch tested in multicentre studies, giving 2–3% positive patch test reactions in consecutive patients, and is thought to be a very weak allergen.

Contact sensitization to fragrances in the general population: a Koch’s approach may reveal the burden of disease

Background  Contact sensitization to fragrance mix (FM) I and Myroxylon pereirae (MP) is common among European patients with dermatitis. Recently, FM II was included in the European baseline series

The significance of fragrance mix, balsam of Peru, colophony and propolis as screening tools in the detection of fragrance allergy

Patch testing to fragrances is an important step in the diagnosis of fragrance allergy and may provide clues to the presence of E.coli, which can be a precursor to E. Coli infection.

Oxidized citrus oil (R-limonene): a frequent skin sensitizer in Europe.

The high frequency of oxidized limonene allergy provides clinical evidence for the European classification of R-(+)-limonene that contains oxidation products as skin sensitizers.