We investigated the effect of dietary supplementation with selenium on spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice fed a high-fat diet. Mice were fed a low-fat diet or that diet modified with 45% of calories from corn oil and supplemented with 0 or 2.5mg selenium/4029 kcal as methylseleninic acid. After 6 weeks, mice were each injected 2.5 × 10(5) Lewis lung carcinoma cells subcutaneously. The resulting primary tumor was removed surgically 10 days later; the experiment was terminated after an additional 10 days. High-fat feeding increased pulmonary metastases by 17% compared to the low-fat diet (P < 0.01). Selenium supplementation reduced the metastases by 11% compared to nonsupplemented controls (P < 0.05); the reduction was less for animals fed the high-fat diet (5%) than for those fed the low-fat diet (18%). Supplemental Se lowered plasma concentrations of proteases (urokinase plasminogen activator, P < 0.01; matrix metalloproteinase-9, P < 0.05) and angiogenic factors (vascular endothelial growth factor, P < 0.01; tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, P < 0.01) compared to nonsupplemented controls. High-fat feeding increased plasma concentrations of adipokines plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, tumor necrosis factor-α, and leptin regardless of the level of dietary selenium; supplemental selenium lowered plasma concentrations of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (P ≤ 0.05) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (P ≤ 0.05) in low-fat fed mice but not in high-fat fed mice. These results indicate that consumption of a high-fat diet abrogated the antimetastatic effects of selenium by increasing the expression of adipose-derived inflammatory cytokines.