Scholars commonly find many negative impacts of traditional paper-and-pencil assessment methods in research. Examination-oriented instruction and the inability to assess high-order cognitive abilities and affective attributes are some examples (Glaser and Silver, 1994; Herman, 1992). However, the limitations that do not comply with contemporary learning theories are not only criticized by many scholars, but also provide a theoretical foundation for the improvement of traditional assessment and creation of new assessment methods. From the viewpoint of recently developed constructivist learning theory, knowledge should not be accepted passively, it should be actively constructed by cognition. Therefore, instead of using simple knowledge instruction, an instructor should be a facilitator and adviser of instruction to help learners create a knowledge construction environment. The instructor should give guidance and support, in order to help learners become actively involved in the learning process and construct their own knowledge. Furthermore, situational cognition claims that learning should be applied to real-life situations and should emphasize students’ involvement and understanding in the learning process.