This article may be used for research, teaching and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution , reselling , loan or sub-licensing, systematic supply or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden. The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents will be complete or accurate or up to date. The accuracy of any instructions, formulae and drug doses should be independently verified with primary sources. The publisher shall not be liable for any loss, actions, claims, proceedings, demand or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with or arising out of the use of this material. This paper reconceptualises the topical issue of user involvement in innovation. We argue that there is more to user involvement than the mechanistic application of methods and tools. Drawing on four case studies, we explore the range of configurations that user-inclusive innovation communities can encompass. We show that user involvement is not a panacea for innovation, and that there is no 'one-size-fits-all' method. Nor is the ability to contribute to innovation an inherent quality of the users themselves. It is constituted by the actions of the producer company in fostering interaction and in responding to users' initiatives. Companies interested in user-inclusive innovation are recommended to closely consider how knowledge sharing between users and producers evolves, what artefacts can serve as mediating representations, and what challenges there are to aligning divergent interests.