Constructing a Control Group Using Multivariate Matched Sampling Methods That Incorporate the Propensity Score

  title={Constructing a Control Group Using Multivariate Matched Sampling Methods That Incorporate the Propensity Score},
  author={Paul R. Rosenbaum and Donald B. Rubin},
  journal={The American Statistician},
Abstract Matched sampling is a method for selecting units from a large reservoir of potential controls to produce a control group of modest size that is similar to a treated group with respect to the distribution of observed covariates. We illustrate the use of multivariate matching methods in an observational study of the effects of prenatal exposure to barbiturates on subsequent psychological development. A key idea is the use of the propensity score as a distinct matching variable. 

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