Construct validity of the Trail Making Test: Role of task-switching, working memory, inhibition/interference control, and visuomotor abilities

  title={Construct validity of the Trail Making Test: Role of task-switching, working memory, inhibition/interference control, and visuomotor abilities},
  author={Ignacio S{\'a}nchez-Cubillo and Jos{\'e} A. Peri{\'a}{\~n}ez and Daniel Adrover-Roig and Jos{\'e} Manuel Rodr{\'i}guez-S{\'a}nchez and Marcos R{\'i}os-Lago and Javier Tirapu and Francisco Barcel{\'o}},
  journal={Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society},
  pages={438 - 450}
Abstract The aim of this study was to clarify which cognitive mechanisms underlie Trail Making Test (TMT) direct and derived scores. A comprehensive review of the literature on the topic was carried out to clarify which cognitive factors had been related to TMT performance. Following the review, we explored the relative contribution from working memory, inhibition/interference control, task-switching ability, and visuomotor speed to TMT performance. Forty-one healthy old subjects participated… 

Neuropsychologists Must Keep Their Eyes on the Reliability of Difference Measures

  • B. Kopp
  • Psychology
    Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society
  • 2011
The use of the TMTB2A difference score should help clinicians to interpret abnormal performance in terms of a failure of this specific cognitive mechanism, as it provides a relatively pure indicator of task-switching abilities.

Construct Validity of the Stroop Color-Word Test: Influence of Speed of Visual Search, Verbal Fluency, Working Memory, Cognitive Flexibility, and Conflict Monitoring.

The present work aimed to clarify the cognitive mechanisms underlying direct (word-reading, color-naming, and color-word) and derived scores (interference, difference, ratio, and relative scores) from Golden's standardized version of the Stroop test, benefitting from the solid background of preceding experimental work.

The Trail Making Test

Normative tables according to significant factors such as age, education level, and sex were created, and measures of visual scanning, graphomotor speed, and visuomotor processing speed were more related to the performance of the TMT-A score, while working memory and inhibition control were mainly associated with the T MT-B and derived TMT scores.

Cognitive Measures and Performance on the Antisaccade Eye Movement Task

Performance on the Trail-Making-Test, version B (TMT-B), a test measuring flexibility, divided attention and WM, was found to significantly predict AS latency and Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVIP), used to assess sustained attention andWM, significantly predicted AS error rate.

How do we measure attention? Using factor analysis to establish construct validity of neuropsychological tests

Investigation of whether standardized neuropsychological tests and experimental cognitive paradigms measure the same cognitive faculties concluded that Digit Span and Arithmetic tests should not be classified as attention tests.

Multicomponent analysis of a digital Trail Making Test

Regression analyses with traditional neuropsychological measures revealed that Part A components were best predicted by speeded processing, while inhibitory control and visual/spatial sequencing were predictors of specific components of Part B.

The Shape Trail Test: Application of a New Variant of the Trail Making Test

The STT is a meaningful attempt to develop a “culture-fair” variant of the TMT in addition to the CTT, and is a sensitive test of visual search and sequencing.

Component Processes and Neural Substrates of Set-shifting

Set-shifting was significantly associated with the volume of the right rostral middle frontal gyrus, however, after controlling for component processes no significant associations were found between set-sh shifting and gray matter volumes.

Derived Trail Making Test indices: demographics and cognitive background variables across the adult life span

We examined the contribution of demographics and cognitive background variables (processing speed, visuospatial skill, working memory, and interference control) on derived Trail Making Test (TMT)



Trail Making Test, Part B as a Measure of Executive Control: Validation Using a Set-Switching Paradigm

Results provide direct evidence that the B/A ratio of performance in the TMT provides an index of executive function.

A task to manipulate attentional load, set-shifting, and inhibitory control: Convergent validity and test–retest reliability of the Parametric Go/No-Go Test

The PGNG was found to have solid parametric characteristics and strong test–retest reliability, and Modest convergent validity was also demonstrated with other executive-functioning tests.

The differential contribution of mental tracking, cognitive flexibility, visual search, and motor speed to performance on parts A and B of the Trail Making Test.

  • S. Crowe
  • Psychology
    Journal of clinical psychology
  • 1998
The analysis indicates that, in a nonclinical sample, the TMT measures a number of different functions and the observation of impaired performance must be further investigated to ascertain the specific nature of these deficits in order to guide rehabilitation and management planning.

The Trail Making Test, Part B: Cognitive Flexibility or Ability to Maintain Set?

Preliminary support is provided for TMT Part B performance being more sensitive to cognitive flexibility than ability to maintain set (operationalized as Wisconsin Card Sorting Test [WCST], percent perseverative errors) than abilityto maintain set.

Analysis of an Oral Paradigm for the Trail Making Test

The results suggest that the oral version of the Trail Making Test yields results consistent with an individual's written performance in normal subjects, regardless of age, which is a useful way of interpreting written Trail Making performances.

Trail Making Test Errors and Executive Function in Schizophrenia and Depression

Compared TMT performance of patients with schizophrenia, patients with major depression, and healthy control participants demonstrated the utility of TMT error analysis in revealing cognitive deficits not traditionally captured using completion time as the sole outcome variable.

Trail making and cognitive set-shifting.

The finding of a significant association between Parts B of TMT and vTMT supports the view that Part B ofTMT is a valid measure of the ability to alternate between cognitive categories.

Construct validity of neuropsychological tests of conceptual and attentional abilities.

Principal components analyses showed that PASAT, VSAT, and TMT-B defined an attention factor and that CAT and WCST defined a conceptual factor.

The Adjusting-Paced Serial Addition Test (Adjusting-PSAT): thresholds for speed of information processing as a function of stimulus modality and problem complexity.

A modified computer version of the PASAT (Adjusting-PSAT; ) is described that measures speed of information processing and working memory by means of a temporal threshold rather than number of