Construct validity in psychological tests.

  title={Construct validity in psychological tests.},
  author={Lee Joseph Cronbach and Paul E. Meehl},
  journal={Psychological bulletin},
  volume={52 4},
Validation of psychological tests has not yet been adequately conceptualized, as the APA Committee on Psychological Tests learned when it undertook (1950-54) to specify what qualities should be investigated before a test is published. In order to make coherent recommendations the Committee found it necessary to distinguish four types of validity, established by different types of research and requiring different interpretation. The chief innovation in the Committee's report was the term… 

De-“Constructing” Test Validation

Construct validity theory presents the most comprehensive description of “validity” as it pertains to educational and psychological testing. The term “construct validity” was introduced in 1954 in

A study of the reliability and validity of tests of divergent thinking

A great deal o£ psychological and educational practice over the last twenty years has been based on the belief that creative abilities are present to some extent in all children, and tests of


  • H. Gough
  • Psychology
    Journal of abnormal psychology
  • 1965
The purpose of this paper is to offer a point of view concerning the meaning of measurement in psychology, one which stresses the implications of any scale or variable when it is brought to bear upon the analysis of the individual case.

Themes and Variations in Validity Theory

  • A.
  • Education
  • 2005
s most of the readers of this A journal know, the 1985 Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing (AERA, MA, & NCME, 1985) is under revision. Deciding whether and how to revise the

Emerging/Evolving Views of the Meaning of Score Validity.

The American Psychological Association, in the late 1940s, began work to establish a code of ethics to include and address the needs of members in scientific and applied fields. Out of the ethics

Causal Interpretations of Psychological Attributes

Maul (this issue) describes a minimalist validation methodology for survey instruments, which he suggests is widely used in some areas of psychology and then critiques this methodology empirically


Determining the meaning of a measure centers around the concept of validity. Traditionally, educational achievement measures have focused on concurrent, predictive, and content validity, assuming

Stamp collecting versus science: Validation as hypothesis testing.

There have been continuing arguments with respect to the unitarian versus trinitarian view of the validation process. An emerging position is that the threefold distinction among validation models

The meaning of personality test scores.

The process of reexamining the methodological and metatheoretical assumptions of personality psychology over the past two decades has been useful for both critics and practitioners of personality

The Predictive Validity of Scales Constructed to Measure Attitudes Toward Education 1

THE validation of attitude scales should logically include two basic aspects: consideration and investigation of logical or constructcontent validity and subsequent investigation of empirical or



New Standards For Test Evaluation

IT IS commdn tradition that no psychological test should be utilized unless i t possesses a high degree of reliability and a t least a moderate degree of validity. Reliability and validity, however


factor is at a minimum; but in a clinic to which children are referredbecauseof difficulties of adjustment,behaviour disordersand similar problems,it must constantlybe kept in mind as a potential

The Criterion Problem in Personality Research

between tests and questionnaires. The questionnaires are also called inventories, schedules, and self-appraisals. None of these are tests in any real sense. By tests we shall mean objective

On a distinction between hypothetical constructs and intervening variables.

A distinction is made between two subclasses of intervening variables, or the authors prefer to say, between ‘intervening variables’ and ‘hypothetical constructs’ which they feel is fundamental but is currently being neglected.

Further Evidence on Response Sets and Test Design

reported is new, evidence has also been drawn from scattered publications which were overlooked in the earlier review. Material on response sets is to be found in a great many sorts of studies,

Criterion analysis; an application of the hypothetico-deductive method to factor analysis.

Factor analysis has been criticized severely by those who, like Allport, Murray, and other adherents of the psychiatric, individualistic, idiopathic point of view believe its atomistic assumptions violate the holistic nature of human personality.


The purpose of this study was to analyze performance on the Relative Movement Test, a part of the U. S. Navy Officer Classification Battery, in order to obtain a better understanding of what the test

Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests

AbstractA general formula (α) of which a special case is the Kuder-Richardson coefficient of equivalence is shown to be the mean of all split-half coefficients resulting from different splittings of

The Concept of Validity in the Interpretation of Test Scores

with some independently observed criterion of the behavior under consideration. It is only as a measure of a specifically defined criterion that a test can be objectively validated at all. For

A Critical Examination of the Concepts of Face Validity

  • C. I. Mosier
  • Psychology
    Educational and psychological measurement
  • 1947
An examination of the ways in which the term face validity has been used indicates three frequent meanings, one of which is high praise or strong condemnation.