# Constraint on the matter–antimatter symmetry-violating phase in neutrino oscillations

@article{KRACCLMSATYYETYSMGAbeAkutsuAliAltAndreopoulos, title={Constraint on the matter–antimatter symmetry-violating phase in neutrino oscillations}, author={A K.R.A.C.C.L.M.S.A.T.Y.Y.E.T.Y.S.M.G.AbeAkutsuAliAltAndreopoulosAnthonyAntonova and K. Abe and R. Akutsu and A. Ali and C. Alt and C. Andreopoulos and L. Anthony and M. Antonova and S. Aoki and A. Ariga and T. Arihara and Y. Asada and Y. Ashida and E. Atkin and Y. Awataguchi and S. Ban and M. Barbi and G. Barker and G. Barr and D. Barrow and C. Barry and M. Batkiewicz-Kwasniak and A. Beloshapkin and F. Bench and V. Berardi and S. Berkman and L. Berns and S. Bhadra and S. Bienstock and A. Blondel and S. Bolognesi and B. Bourguille and S. Boyd and D. Brailsford and A. Bravar and D. B. Bergu{\~n}o and C. Bronner and A. Bubak and M. B. Avanzini and J. Calcutt and T. Campbell and S. Cao and S. L. Cartwright and M. G. Catanesi and A. Cervera and A. Chappell and C. Checchia and D. Cherdack and N. Chikuma and M. Cicerchia and G. Christodoulou and J. Coleman and G. Collazuol and L. Cook and D. Coplowe and A. Cudd and A. Dabrowska and G. De Rosa and T. Dealtry and P. F. Denner and S. R. Dennis and C. Densham and F. Di Lodovico and N. Dokania and S. Dolan and T. A. Doyle and O. Drapier and J. Dumarchez and P. Dunne and A. Eguchi and L. Eklund and S. Emery-Schrenk and A. Ereditato and P. Fern{\'a}ndez and T. Feusels and A. Finch and G. A. Fiorentini and G. Fiorillo and C. François and M. Friend and Y. Fujii and R. Fujita and D. Fukuda and R. Fukuda and Y. Fukuda and K. Fusshoeller and K. Gameil and C. Giganti and T. Golan and M. Gonin and A. Gorin and M. Guigue and D. R. Hadley and J. Haigh and P. Hamacher-Baumann and M. Hartz and T. Hasegawa and S. Hassani and N. C. Hastings and T. Hayashino and Y. Hayato and A. Hiramoto and M. Hogan and J. Holeczek and N. T. Hong Van and F. Iacob and A. K. Ichikawa and M. Ikeda and T. Ishida and T. Ishii and M. Ishitsuka and K. Iwamoto and A. Izmaylov and M. Jakkapu and B. Jamieson and S. Jenkins and C. Jes'us-Valls and M. Jiang and S. Johnson and P. Jonsson and C. K. Jung and X. Jun-jie and P. B. Jurj and M. Kabirnezhad and A. Kaboth and T. Kajita and H. Kakuno and J. Kameda and D. Karlen and S. Kasetti and Y. Kataoka and T. Katori and Y. Kato and E. Kearns and M. Khabibullin and A. Khotjantsev and T. Kikawa and H. Kikutani and H. Kim and J. Kim and S. King and J. Kisiel and A. Knight and A. Knox and T. Kobayashi and L. Koch and T. Koga and A. Konaka and L. Kormos and Y. Koshio and A. Kostin and K. Kowalik and H. Kubo and Y. Kudenko and N. Kukita and S. Kuribayashi and R. Kurjata and T. Kutter and M. Kuze and L. Labarga and J. Lagoda and M. Lamoureux and M. Laveder and M. Lawe and M. Licciardi and T. Lindner and R. P. Litchfield and S. L. Liu and X. Li and A. Longhin and L. Ludovici and X. Lu and T. Lux and L. N. Machado and L. Magaletti and K. Mahn and M. Małek and S. Manly and L. Maret and A. D. Marino and L. Marti-Magro and J. Martin and T. Maruyama and T. Matsubara and K. Matsushita and V. Matveev and K. Mavrokoridis and E. Mazzucato and M. McCarthy and N. McCauley and J. Mcelwee and K. McFarland and C. McGrew and A. Mefodiev and C. Metelko and M. Mezzetto and A. Minamino and O. Mineev and S. Mine and M. Miura and L. M. Bueno and S. Moriyama and J. Morrison and T. Mueller and L. Munteanu and S. Murphy and Y. Nagai and T. Nakadaira and M. Nakahata and Y. Nakajima and A. Nakamura and K. Nakamura and S. Nakayama and T. Nakaya and K. Nakayoshi and C. Nantais and C. Naseby and T. V. Ngoc and K. Niewczas and K. Nishikawa and Y. Nishimura and E. Noah and T. Nonnenmacher and F. Nova and P. Novella and J. Nowak and J. Nugent and H. O’Keeffe and L. O'Sullivan and T. Odagawa and K. Okumura and T. Okusawa and S. M. Oser and R. A. Owen and Y. Oyama and V. Palladino and J. Palomino and V. Paolone and M. Pari and W. Parker and S. Parsa and J. Pasternak and P. Paudyal and M. Pavin and D. Payne and G. Penn and L. Pickering and C. Pidcott and G. Pintaudi and E. Guerra and C. Pistillo and B. Popov and K. Porwit and M. Posiadała-Zezula and A. Pritchard and B. Quilain and T. Radermacher and E. Radicioni and B. Radics and P. N. Ratoff and E. Reinherz-Aronis and C. Riccio and E. Rondio and S. Roth and A. Rubbia and A. C. Ruggeri and C. Ruggles and A. Rychter and K. Sakashita and F. S{\'a}nchez and G. Santucci and C. Schloesser and K. Scholberg and J. Schwehr and M. Scott and Y. Seiya and T. Sekiguchi and H. Sekiya and D. Sgalaberna and R. Shah and A. Shaikhiev and F. Shaker and A. Shaykina and M. Shiozawa and W. Shorrock and A. Shvartsman and A. Smirnov and M. Smy and J. T. Sobczyk and H. Sobel and F. P. Soler and Y. Sonoda and J. Steinmann and S. Suvorov and A. Suzuki and S. Suzuki and Y. Suzuki and A. Sztuc and M. Tada and M. Tajima and A. Takeda and Y. Takeuchi and H. Tanaka and H. K. Tanaka and S. Tanaka and L. Thompson and W. Toki and C. Touramanis and T. Towstego and K. Tsui and T. Tsukamoto and M. Tzanov and Y. Uchida and W. Uno and M. Vagins and S. Valder and Z. Vallari and D. Vargas and G. Vasseur and C. Vilela and W. Vinning and T. Vladisavljevic and V. Volkov and T. Wachala and J. Walker and J. Walsh and Y. Wang and D. Wark and M. Wascko and A. Weber and R. Wendell and M. J. Wilking and C. Wilkinson and J. R. Wilson and R. J. Wilson and K. Wood and C. Wret and Y. Yamada and K. Yamamoto and C. Yanagisawa and G. Yang and T. Yano and K. Yasutome and S. Yen and N. Yershov and M. Yokoyama and T. Yoshida and M. Yu and A. Zalewska and J. Zalipska and K. Zaremba and G. Żarnecki and M. Ziembicki and E. D. Zimmerman and M. Zito and S. Zsoldos and A. Zykova}, journal={Nature}, year={2020}, volume={580}, pages={339 - 344} }

The charge-conjugation and parity-reversal (CP) symmetry of fundamental particles is a symmetry between matter and antimatter. Violation of this CP symmetry was first observed in 19641, and CP violation in the weak interactions of quarks was soon established2. Sakharov proposed3 that CP violation is necessary to explain the observed imbalance of matter and antimatter abundance in the Universe. However, CP violation in quarks is too small to support this explanation. So far, CP violation has not… CONTINUE READING

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