# Constraint on the matter–antimatter symmetry-violating phase in neutrino oscillations

@article{AbeAkutsuAliAltAndreopoulosAnthonyAntonovaA20, title={Constraint on the matter–antimatter symmetry-violating phase in neutrino oscillations}, author={K. R. A. C. C. L. M. S. A. T. Y. Y. E. T. Y. S. M. G. Abe Akutsu Ali Alt Andreopoulos Anthony Antonova A and K. Abe and Ryosuke Akutsu and A. Ali and C. Alt and C. Andreopoulos and L. Anthony and M. G. Antonova and Shigeki Aoki and Akitaka Ariga and T. Arihara and Y. Asada and Y. Ashida and E. T. Atkin and Y. Awataguchi and Sei Ban and Mauricio Barbi and Gary John Barker and Giles David Barr and D. Barrow and Christopher Barry and M. Batkiewicz-Kwasniak and A. Beloshapkin and Francis Bench and Vincenzo Berardi and Sophie Berkman and Lukas Berns and Sampa Bhadra and Sergio Bienstock and Alain Blondel and Sara Bolognesi and B. Bourguille and S. B. Boyd and D. Brailsford and Alessandro Bravar and D. Bravo Bergu{\~n}o and Christopher Bronner and Arkadiusz Bubak and M. Buizza Avanzini and Jordan Calcutt and Thomas B. Campbell and S. Cao and Susan Cartwright and M. G. Catanesi and Anselmo Cervera and Andrew Chappell and Caterina Checchia and Daniel Cherdack and Naruhiro Chikuma and Magda Cicerchia and Georgios Christodoulou and J. Coleman and G. Collazuol and Laurence Cook and David Coplowe and A. Cudd and Anita Magdalena Dąbrowska and G. De Rosa and T. Dealtry and P. F. Denner and Steve Dennis and Chris Densham and F. Di Lodovico and Neha Dokania and S. Dolan and Thomas A. Doyle and O. Drapier and Jacques Dumarchez and P. Dunne and A. Eguchi and L. Eklund and Sandrine Emery-Schrenk and Antonio Ereditato and Pablo Fern{\'a}ndez and Tom Feusels and A. J. Finch and Giovanni Fiorentini and Giuliana Fiorillo and C. Francois and Megan Friend and Yoshiaki Fujii and Ryo Fujita and D. Fukuda and R. Fukuda and Y. Fukuda and K. Fusshoeller and K. Gameil and Claudio Giganti and Tomasz Golan and Michel Gonin and A. M. Gorin and M. Guigue and David Hadley and Jennifer Haigh and Philip Hamacher-Baumann and Mark Patrick Hartz and Takehisa Hasegawa and S. Hassani and Nicholas C. Hastings and Tatsuya Hayashino and Y. Hayato and Ayami Hiramoto and Matthew E. Hogan and Jacek Holeczek and Nguyen Thi Hong Van and Fabio Iacob and Atsuko Kondo Ichikawa and Motoyasu Ikeda and Takanori Ishida and Takehiko Ishii and Mikako Ishitsuka and K. Iwamoto and Alexander Izmaylov and Mahesh Jakkapu and Blair Jamieson and Sam J. Jenkins and C{\'e}sar Jes{\'u}s-Valls and Miao Jiang and S. Johnson and P. Jonsson and Chang Kee Jung and Xiao Junjie and P. B. Jurj and M. Kabirnezhad and Asher Kaboth and T. Kajita and Hidekazu Kakuno and Jun Kameda and D. Karlen and Siva Prasad Kasetti and Yousuku Kataoka and Teppei Katori and Y. Kato and Edward Kearns and Marat Khabibullin and A. N. Khotjantsev and Tatsuya Kikawa and Hiroshi Kikutani and H. I. Kim and J. Y. Kim and S. King and Jan Kisiel and A. Knight and A. Knox and T. Kobayashi and L. Koch and Taichiro Koga and Akira Konaka and Laura Lee Kormos and Yusuke Koshio and A. Kostin and Katarzyna Kowalik and Hajime Kubo and Y. Kudenko and Naoe Kukita and S. Kuribayashi and Robert Kurjata and Thomas Kutter and M. Kuze and L. Labarga and Justyna Lagoda and M. Lamoureux and Marco Laveder and M. Lawe and M. Licciardi and Thomas Lindner and R. Phillip Litchfield and S. L. Liu and X. L. Li and A. Longhin and Lucio Ludovici and X. Lu and Thorsten Lux and Lucas Nascimento Machado and Lorenzo Magaletti and K. Mahn and Matthew Malek and Steven L. Manly and Luc Maret and Alysia Marino and L. Marti-Magro and J. F. Martin and Takasumi Maruyama and Toshiaki Matsubara and Kohei Matsushita and Victor Anatolievich Matveev and K. Mavrokoridis and Eddy Mazzucato and M. McCarthy and Neil McCauley and Jordan M. McElwee and Ks Mcfarland and C. Mcgrew and A. Mefodiev and C. J. Metelko and Mauro Mezzetto and A. Minamino and O. V. Mineev and Shun'ichi Mine and Makoto Miura and L. Molina Bueno and S. Moriyama and John Morrison and Th. A. Mueller and L. Munteanu and Sebastien Murphy and Y. Nagai and Takeshi Nakadaira and M. Nakahata and Y. Nakajima and Atsushi Nakamura and Katsuhiro Nakamura and Katsuhiro Nakamura and Shoei Nakayama and T. Nakaya and Kazuo Nakayoshi and Corina Nantais and C. E. R. Naseby and Tran Van Ngoc and K. Niewczas and Koichiro Nishikawa and Yasuhiro Nishimura and Ebogomo Noah and Tobias Nonnenmacher and F. Nova and Pau Novella and J. A. Nowak and John Columba Nugent and Helen O'Keeffe and L. O’Sullivan and Takahiro Odagawa and Kimihiro Okumura and Toru Okusawa and Sean M. Oser and R. A. Owen and Y. Oyama and Vittorio Palladino and Jos{\'e} Luis Valverde Palomino and V. S. Paolone and M. Pari and William Chesluk Parker and Saba Parsa and Jaroslaw Pasternak and Pradeep Paudyal and Matej Pavin and David Payne and G. C. Penn and Luke Pickering and Celeste Pidcott and G. Pintaudi and E. S. Pinzon Guerra and Ciro Pistillo and B. Popov and Kamil Porwit and Magdalena Posiadała-Zezula and A. Pritchard and Benjamin Quilain and Tobias Radermacher and Emilio Radicioni and Balint Radics and Peter Ratoff and Erez Reinherz-Aronis and C. Riccio and Ewa Rondio and Stefan Roth and Andr'e Rubbia and Alan Cosimo Ruggeri and C. A. Ruggles and A. Rychter and Ken Sakashita and F. S{\'a}nchez and G. Santucci and Caspar Schloesser and Kate Scholberg and Jackie Schwehr and M. Scott and Yoshihiro Seiya and T. Sekiguchi and Hiroyuki Sekiya and D. Sgalaberna and R. Shah and A. T. Shaikhiev and F. Shaker and A. A. Shaykina and Masato Shiozawa and William I. Shorrock and Alex A. Shvartsman and Alexsandr A. Smirnov and Michael Burghard Smy and J. Sobczyk and Henry W. Sobel and F. J. P. Soler and Yutaro Sonoda and Jochen Steinmann and Sergey Suvorov and Atsuto Suzuki and S. Y. Suzuki and Y. Suzuki and Artur A. Sztuc and Masahiro Tada and M. Tajima and Atsushi Takeda and Y. Takeuchi and H. K. Tanaka and H. A. Tanaka and Shinya Tanaka and Lee F. Thompson and W. H. Toki and C. Touramanis and Trevor Towstego and Ka Ming Tsui and Toshifumi Tsukamoto and Martin Tzanov and Y. Uchida and Wataru Uno and Mark Robert Vagins and S. Valder and Z. Vallari and D. Vargas and Georges Vasseur and Crist{\'o}v{\~a}o Vilela and William G. S. Vinning and Tomislav Vladisavljevic and V. V. Volkov and Tomasz Wachala and J. Walker and Joseph G. Walsh and Y. Wang and David Lee Wark and M. Wascko and A. Weber and R. A. Wendell and Michael J. Wilking and Callum Wilkinson and J. R. Wilson and R. J. Wilson and Kevin Wood and C. Wret and Y. Yamada and K. Yamamoto and C. Yanagisawa and G. Yang and Takatomi Yano and Kenji Yasutome and Stanley Yen and Nikolay Yershov and M. Yokoyama and T. Yoshida and M. Yu and Agnieszka Zalewska and Joanna Zalipska and Krzysztof Zaremba and George Zarnecki and Marek Ziembicki and Eric D. Zimmerman and Marco Zito and Stephane Zsoldos and Angelica Zykova}, journal={Nature}, year={2020}, volume={580}, pages={339 - 344} }

The charge-conjugation and parity-reversal (CP) symmetry of fundamental particles is a symmetry between matter and antimatter. Violation of this CP symmetry was first observed in 19641, and CP violation in the weak interactions of quarks was soon established2. Sakharov proposed3 that CP violation is necessary to explain the observed imbalance of matter and antimatter abundance in the Universe. However, CP violation in quarks is too small to support this explanation. So far, CP violation has not…

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