Constitutive and conditional mutant mouse models for understanding dopaminergic regulation of orofacial movements: emerging insights and challenges.

@article{Tomiyama2012ConstitutiveAC,
  title={Constitutive and conditional mutant mouse models for understanding dopaminergic regulation of orofacial movements: emerging insights and challenges.},
  author={Katsunori Tomiyama and John L Drago and John L Waddington and Noriaki Koshikawa},
  journal={Journal of pharmacological sciences},
  year={2012},
  volume={119 4},
  pages={297-301}
}
Among numerous mechanisms implicated in the regulation of orofacial movements, dopamine-containing neurons have received the most extensive study. Here we review the effects of a) constitutive knockout of D(1-5) dopamine receptors and b) conditional mutations with progressive ablation of D(1) receptor-expressing cells, on the topography of spontaneous and D(1)-like agonist-induced orofacial movements. In constitutive knockouts, D(1) and D(2) exert primary roles in regulating horizontal and… CONTINUE READING

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