Constants across cultures in the face and emotion.

  title={Constants across cultures in the face and emotion.},
  author={Paul Ekman and W V Friesen},
  journal={Journal of personality and social psychology},
  volume={17 2},
  • P. EkmanW. Friesen
  • Published 1 February 1971
  • Psychology
  • Journal of personality and social psychology
This study addresses the question of whether any facial expressions of emotion are universal. Recent studies showing that members of literate cultures associated the same emotion concepts with the same facial behaviors could not demonstrate that at least some facial expressions of emotion are universal; the cultures compared had all been exposed to some of the same mass media presentations of facial expression, and these may have taught the people in each culture to recognize the unique facial… 

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