Consolidation in human motor memory

@article{BrashersKrug1996ConsolidationIH,
  title={Consolidation in human motor memory},
  author={Thomas M. Brashers-Krug and Reza Shadmehr and Emilio Bizzi},
  journal={Nature},
  year={1996},
  volume={382},
  pages={252-255}
}
LEARNING a motor skill sets in motion neural processes that continue to evolve after practice has ended, a phenomenon known as consolidation1–4. Here we present psychophysical evidence for this, and show that consolidation of a motor skill was disrupted when a second motor task was learned immediately after the first. There was no disruption if four hours elapsed between learning the two motor skills, with consolidation occuring gradually over this period. Previous studies in humans and other… 
Failure to Consolidate the Consolidation Theory of Learning for Sensorimotor Adaptation Tasks
TLDR
The results fail to support the idea that motor memories become consolidated into a protected state, but they are consistent with recent ideas of memory formation, which propose that memories can shift between active and inactive states.
Consolidation of motor memory
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TLDR
It is suggested that procedural memory consolidation processes may affect the excitation–inhibition balance within cortical representations of the trained movements; this new balance is better reflected in repetition effects than in the average level of evoked neural activity.
Neural correlates of motor memory consolidation.
TLDR
Functional imaging of the brain demonstrates that within 6 hours after completion of practice, while performance remains unchanged, the brain engages new regions to perform the task; there is a shift from prefrontal regions of the cortex to the premotor, posterior parietal, and cerebellar cortex structures, specific to recall of an established motor skill.
Segregation between acquisition and long‐term memory in sensorimotor learning
TLDR
The results show that learning one task led to proactive interference to acquisition of the second, however, this interference was not accompanied by retroactive interference to consolidation of the first task, indicating that acquisition and consolidation can be uncoupled.
Somatosensory cortex participates in the consolidation of human motor memory
TLDR
By using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to block consolidation, this work reports the first direct evidence that plasticity in somatosensory cortex participates in the consolidation of motor memory.
Interference effects between memory systems in the acquisition of a skill
TLDR
The introduction of a visuospatial memory task just before retrieval of the motor skill was sufficient to eliminate gains, suggesting that interference between procedural and declarative memory systems may also occur during subsequent motor recall.
Patterns of interference in sequence learning and prism adaptation inconsistent with the consolidation hypothesis.
TLDR
It is found that remote memories were susceptible to interference, but the passage of time did not afford protection from interference, and results are inconsistent with the long-term consolidation of these motor skills.
Dissociable stages of human memory consolidation and reconsolidation
TLDR
The unique contributions of wake and sleep in the development of different forms of consolidation are described, and it is shown that waking reactivation can turn a previously consolidated memory back into a labile state requiring subsequent reconsolidation.
Early consolidation in human primary motor cortex
TLDR
Low-frequency, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of M1 but not other brain areas specifically disrupted the retention of the behavioural improvement, but did not affect basal motor behaviour, task performance, motor learning by subsequent practice, or recall of the newly acquired motor skill.
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