Consolidation in human motor memory

  title={Consolidation in human motor memory},
  author={Thomas M. Brashers-Krug and Reza Shadmehr and Emilio Bizzi},
LEARNING a motor skill sets in motion neural processes that continue to evolve after practice has ended, a phenomenon known as consolidation1–4. Here we present psychophysical evidence for this, and show that consolidation of a motor skill was disrupted when a second motor task was learned immediately after the first. There was no disruption if four hours elapsed between learning the two motor skills, with consolidation occuring gradually over this period. Previous studies in humans and other… 
Failure to Consolidate the Consolidation Theory of Learning for Sensorimotor Adaptation Tasks
The results fail to support the idea that motor memories become consolidated into a protected state, but they are consistent with recent ideas of memory formation, which propose that memories can shift between active and inactive states.
Consolidation of motor memory
Done That: Short-term Repetition Related Modulations of Motor Cortex Activity as a Stable Signature for Overnight Motor Memory Consolidation
It is suggested that procedural memory consolidation processes may affect the excitation–inhibition balance within cortical representations of the trained movements; this new balance is better reflected in repetition effects than in the average level of evoked neural activity.
Neural correlates of motor memory consolidation.
Functional imaging of the brain demonstrates that within 6 hours after completion of practice, while performance remains unchanged, the brain engages new regions to perform the task; there is a shift from prefrontal regions of the cortex to the premotor, posterior parietal, and cerebellar cortex structures, specific to recall of an established motor skill.
Segregation between acquisition and long‐term memory in sensorimotor learning
The results show that learning one task led to proactive interference to acquisition of the second, however, this interference was not accompanied by retroactive interference to consolidation of the first task, indicating that acquisition and consolidation can be uncoupled.
Somatosensory cortex participates in the consolidation of human motor memory
By using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to block consolidation, this work reports the first direct evidence that plasticity in somatosensory cortex participates in the consolidation of motor memory.
Interference effects between memory systems in the acquisition of a skill
The introduction of a visuospatial memory task just before retrieval of the motor skill was sufficient to eliminate gains, suggesting that interference between procedural and declarative memory systems may also occur during subsequent motor recall.
Patterns of interference in sequence learning and prism adaptation inconsistent with the consolidation hypothesis.
It is found that remote memories were susceptible to interference, but the passage of time did not afford protection from interference, and results are inconsistent with the long-term consolidation of these motor skills.
Dissociable stages of human memory consolidation and reconsolidation
The unique contributions of wake and sleep in the development of different forms of consolidation are described, and it is shown that waking reactivation can turn a previously consolidated memory back into a labile state requiring subsequent reconsolidation.
Early consolidation in human primary motor cortex
Low-frequency, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of M1 but not other brain areas specifically disrupted the retention of the behavioural improvement, but did not affect basal motor behaviour, task performance, motor learning by subsequent practice, or recall of the newly acquired motor skill.


Memory consolidation and the medial temporal lobe: a simple network model.
  • P. Alvarez, L. Squire
  • Biology, Psychology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1994
Evidence that the medial temporal lobe memory system is involved in a process of consolidation is reviewed: memories are initially dependent on this system but gradually become established in other areas of the brain.
The primate hippocampal formation: evidence for a time-limited role in memory storage.
Results show that the hippocampal formation is required for memory storage for only a limited period of time after learning, and as time passes, its role in memory diminishes, and a more permanent memory gradually develops independently of the hippocampus.
The time course of learning a visual skill
Here it is conjecture that some types of perceptual experience trigger permanent neural changes in early processing stages of the adult visual system, which may take many hours to become functional.
Why there are complementary learning systems in the hippocampus and neocortex: insights from the successes and failures of connectionist models of learning and memory.
The account presented here suggests that memories are first stored via synaptic changes in the hippocampal system, that these changes support reinstatement of recent memories in the neocortex, that neocortical synapses change a little on each reinstatement, and that remote memory is based on accumulated neocorticals changes.
Medial temporal lesions in monkeys impair memory on a variety of tasks sensitive to human amnesia.
The results of the present study strengthen the conclusion that monkeys with medial temporal lesions constitute an animal model of human amnesia.
Synaptic plasticity in the cerebellar cortex and its role in motor learning.
  • M. Ito
  • Biology, Psychology
    The Canadian journal of neurological sciences. Le journal canadien des sciences neurologiques
  • 1993
The hypothesis that learning proceeds in cerebellar tissues in such a way that error signals of climbing fibers act to depress by LTD those parallel fiber synapses responsible for the errors is hypothesized.
Different forms of synaptic plasticity in somatosensory and motor areas of the neocortex
We have studied vertical synaptic pathways in two cytoarchitectonically distinct areas of rat neocortex--the granular primary somatosensory (SI) area and the agranular primary motor (MI) area--and