Consolidation and reconsolidation share behavioral and neurochemical mechanisms

  title={Consolidation and reconsolidation share behavioral and neurochemical mechanisms},
  author={Ji Won Bang and Kazuhisa Shibata and Sebastian M. Frank and Edward G. Walsh and Mark W. Greenlee and Takeo Watanabe and Yuka Sasaki},
  journal={Nature human behaviour},
  pages={507 - 513}
After encoding, memory traces are fragile and easily disrupted by new learning until they are stabilized through a process termed consolidation1,2. However, several studies have suggested that consolidation does not make memory traces permanently stable. The results of these studies support the theory that the retrieval of previously consolidated memory, termed reactivation, renders the memory traces labile again and subject to disruption by new learning unless they go through a further… 
Visual-oculomotor interactions facilitate consolidation of perceptual learning.
Whether visual consolidation can be facilitated by visual-oculomotor interactions is examined and visual gains were substantially enhanced compared with those achieved by visual practice per se and were strongly related to the magnitude of oculomotor gains, suggesting that the brain utilizes oculumotor memory to enhance basic visual perception.
Opponent neurochemical and functional processing in NREM and REM sleep in visual learning
NREM sleep increases plasticity leading to performance gains independently of learning, while REM sleep decreases plasticity to stabilize learning in a learning-specific manner, reflecting opposite neurochemical processing for different roles in learning during different sleep stages.
Post-training TMS abolishes performance improvement and releases future learning from interference
Continuous theta burst stimulation directly following a learning task is applied and it is shown that this does affect memory consolidation, and that this effect relies on the visual cortex.
Feature-Specific Awake Reactivation in Human V1 after Visual Training
It is shown that awake reactivation occurs even in the primary visual cortex V1 and that this reactivation is related to the amount of behavioral learning, which could play an integral role in memory consolidation.
Awake reactivation and suppression after brief task exposure depend on task novelty
It is found that awake reactivation occurs for the novel task even after a brief learning period, and brief exposure to the extensively trained task led to “awake suppression” such that neural activity immediately after the exposure diverged from the pattern for the trained task.
Awake suppression after brief exposure to a familiar stimulus
The results support the existence of competition between local awake reactivation and top-down awake suppression, with suppression being dominant for familiar stimuli.
Complementary contributions of NREM and REM sleep to visual learning
It is indicated that NREM sleep promotes plasticity, leading to performance gains independent of learning, while REM sleep decreases plasticity to stabilize learning in a learning-specific manner.
Early Visual Cortex Stimulation Modifies Well-Consolidated Perceptual Gains.
The results indicate that even previously consolidated human perceptual memories are susceptible to neuromodulation, involving early visual cortical processing, and the opportunity to noninvasively neuromomodulate reactivated perceptual learning may have important clinical implications.


The neurobiology of consolidations, or, how stable is the engram?
  • Y. Dudai
  • Biology
    Annual review of psychology
  • 2004
A heated debate has been revitalized on whether memories become labile and must undergo some form of renewed consolidation every time they are activated, and on fundamental issues concerning the nature of the memory trace, its maturation, persistence, retrievability, and modifiability.
Dissociable stages of human memory consolidation and reconsolidation
The unique contributions of wake and sleep in the development of different forms of consolidation are described, and it is shown that waking reactivation can turn a previously consolidated memory back into a labile state requiring subsequent reconsolidation.
Independent Cellular Processes for Hippocampal Memory Consolidation and Reconsolidation
By infusing antisense oligodeoxynucleotides into the hippocampus of rats, this work shows that consolidation and reconsolidation are doubly dissociable component processes of memory.
Fear memories require protein synthesis in the amygdala for reconsolidation after retrieval
It is shown that consolidated fear memories, when reactivated during retrieval, return to a labile state in which infusion of anisomycin shortly after memory reactivation produces amnesia on later tests, regardless of whether reactivation was performed 1 or 14 days after conditioning.
Postretrieval new learning does not reliably induce human memory updating via reconsolidation
This study replicated and extended a prominent 3-day motor-sequence learning study and explored the broader validity of reconsolidation-updating theory by using a declarative recall task and sequences similar to phone numbers or computer passwords, suggesting that memory retrieval followed by new learning does not reliably induce human memory updating via reconsolidations.
Directly reactivated, but not indirectly reactivated, memories undergo reconsolidation in the amygdala.
It is found that directly reactivated memories become labile, but indirectly reactivated (i.e., associated) memories do not, which suggests that memory reactivation produces content-limited rather than wholesale changes in a memory and its associations and explains why each time a memory is retrieved and updated, the entire associative structure of the memory is not grossly altered.
Noradrenergic Blockade of Memory Reconsolidation: A Failure to Reduce Conditioned Fear Responding
The present results underscore that the success of human fear conditioning research may depend on subtle manipulations and instructions, and a resistance to reduce conditioned fear responding by either disrupting reconsolidation or extinction training is observed.
Extinction-Reconsolidation Boundaries: Key to Persistent Attenuation of Fear Memories
A behavioral design is described in which a fear memory in rats is destabilized and reinterpreted as safe by presenting an isolated retrieval trial before an extinction session, which permanently attenuates the fear memory without the use of drugs.