Consistent left-right asymmetry cannot be established by late organizers in Xenopus unless the late organizer is a conjoined twin.

@article{Vandenberg2010ConsistentLA,
  title={Consistent left-right asymmetry cannot be established by late organizers in Xenopus unless the late organizer is a conjoined twin.},
  author={Laura N Vandenberg and Michael Levin},
  journal={Development},
  year={2010},
  volume={137 7},
  pages={1095-105}
}
How embryos consistently orient asymmetries of the left-right (LR) axis is an intriguing question, as no macroscopic environmental cues reliably distinguish left from right. Especially unclear are the events coordinating LR patterning with the establishment of the dorsoventral (DV) axes and midline determination in early embryos. In frog embryos, consistent physiological and molecular asymmetries manifest by the second cell cleavage; however, models based on extracellular fluid flow at the node… CONTINUE READING
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