Conserving Pollinators in North American Forests: A Review

  title={Conserving Pollinators in North American Forests: A Review},
  author={James L. Hanula and Michael D. Ulyshen and Scott Horn},
  journal={Natural Areas Journal},
  pages={427 - 439}
ABSTRACT: Bees and butterflies generally favor open forest habitats regardless of forest type, geographic region, or methods used to create these habitats. Dense shrub layers of native or nonnative species beneath forest canopies negatively impact herbaceous plant cover and diversity, and pollinators. The presence of nonnative flowers as a source of nectar, pollen, or larval food can have positive or negative effects on pollinators depending on the situation, but in cases where the nonnatives… 

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