Conserved or Lost: Molecular Evolution of the Key Gene GULO in Vertebrate Vitamin C Biosynthesis

@article{Yang2013ConservedOL,
  title={Conserved or Lost: Molecular Evolution of the Key Gene GULO in Vertebrate Vitamin C Biosynthesis},
  author={Hongwen Yang},
  journal={Biochemical Genetics},
  year={2013},
  volume={51},
  pages={413-425}
}
  • Hongwen Yang
  • Published 12 February 2013
  • Biology
  • Biochemical Genetics
Abstractl-gulono-gamma-lactone oxidase (GULO) catalyzes the final step in vertebrate vitamin C biosynthesis. Vitamin C-incapable vertebrates lack the GULO gene. Gene structure and phylogenetic analyses showed that vertebrate GULO genes are 64–95% identical at the amino acid level and consist of 11 conserved exons. GULO pseudogenes have multiple indel mutations and premature stop codons in higher primates, guinea pigs, and some bats. No GULO-like sequences were identified in teleost fishes… 
Evolution of alternative biosynthetic pathways for vitamin C following plastid acquisition in photosynthetic eukaryotes
TLDR
Molecular and biochemical evidence is presented demonstrating that GULO was functionally replaced with GLDH in photosynthetic eukaryote lineages following plastid acquisition and likely contributed to the rise of ascorbate as a major photoprotective antioxidant.
Patterns and tempo of PCSK9 pseudogenizations suggest an ancient divergence in mammalian cholesterol homeostasis mechanisms
TLDR
There is a fundamental difference in the regulation of cholesterol metabolism between Euarchontoglires and Laurasiatheria, which in turn has important implications for the use of Laurasiaatheria species (e.g. pigs) as animal models of human cholesterol-related diseases.
Giant tortoise genomes provide insights into longevity and age-related disease
TLDR
The genomes of two long-lived giant tortoises, including Lonesome George, reveal candidate genes and pathways associated with their development, gigantism and longevity and expands the understanding of the genomic determinants of ageing.
The phylogenetic system of primates—character evolution in the light of a consolidated tree
  • H. Herlyn
  • Biology
    Organisms Diversity & Evolution
  • 2016
TLDR
More than 200 evolutionary changes in hard and soft tissue anatomy/morphology, behavior, physiology, and protein constitution are presented in the context of their functional relevance and adaptive value.
iMM1865: A New Reconstruction of Mouse Genome-Scale Metabolic Model
TLDR
iMM1865 model is presented as an orthology-based reconstruction of a GSM model for Mus musculus based on the last flux-consistent version of the human metabolic network, Recon3D, and revealed that tissue-specific models render much better predictions than GSM models.
Gulo gene locus, a new gene editing locus for mammalian cells
TLDR
The Gulo locus might be good candidates for safe Harbor loci for transgenic research, and the utility as the new safe harbor locus in human and mice is examined.
Ascorbate synthesis in fishes: A review
TLDR
An up‐to‐date review on ascorbate synthesis in fishes and the possible future directions of study in view of the discovery of the unusual site of asCorbate biosynthesis is provided.
Transport of vitamin C in cancer.
TLDR
Understanding vitamin C physiology in tumor survival might be key to decipher the controversies in its relation to cancer, as well as allow the design of new therapeutic approaches in human cancer.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 32 REFERENCES
Inactivation dates of the human and guinea pig vitamin C genes
TLDR
A method based on sequence comparisons of lineages with and without functional GLO genes was used to calculate inactivation dates of 61 and 14 MYA for the primate and guinea pig genes, respectively, consistent with previous phylogeny-based estimates.
Recent Loss of Vitamin C Biosynthesis Ability in Bats
TLDR
The results suggest that bats lost the ability to biosynthesize vitamin C recently by exhibiting stepwise mutation patterns during GULO evolution that can ultimately lead to pseudogenization.
Evolutionary significance of vitamin C biosynthesis in terrestrial vertebrates.
The transcription of l-gulono-gamma-lactone oxidase, a key enzyme for biosynthesis of ascorbate, during development of Persian sturgeon Acipenser persicus.
The Genetics of Vitamin C Loss in Vertebrates
TLDR
Interestingly, some of the GLO pseudogenes found in bat species have been shown to be reactivated during evolution and suggest that losing the ability to make vitamin C is a neutral trait.
Genome duplication in the teleost fish Tetraodon nigroviridis reveals the early vertebrate proto-karyotype
TLDR
Genome analysis provides a greatly improved fish gene catalogue, including identifying key genes previously thought to be absent in fish, and reconstructs much of the evolutionary history of ancient and recent chromosome rearrangements leading to the modern human karyotype.
Ontogenetic development of L-gulonolactone oxidase activity in several vertebrates.
...
...