Conservation of Y-linked genes during human evolution revealed by comparative sequencing in chimpanzee

@article{Hughes2005ConservationOY,
  title={Conservation of Y-linked genes during human evolution revealed by comparative sequencing in chimpanzee},
  author={Jennifer F. Hughes and Helen Skaletsky and Tatyana Pyntikova and Patrick Minx and Tina Graves and Steve Rozen and Richard K. Wilson and David C. Page},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2005},
  volume={437},
  pages={100-103}
}
The human Y chromosome, transmitted clonally through males, contains far fewer genes than the sexually recombining autosome from which it evolved. The enormity of this evolutionary decline has led to predictions that the Y chromosome will be completely bereft of functional genes within ten million years. Although recent evidence of gene conversion within massive Y-linked palindromes runs counter to this hypothesis, most unique Y-linked genes are not situated in palindromes and have no gene… 
Chimpanzee and human Y chromosomes are remarkably divergent in structure and gene content
TLDR
It is suggested that the extraordinary divergence of the chimpanzee and human MSYs was driven by four synergistic factors: the prominent role of the MSY in sperm production, ‘genetic hitchhiking’ effects in the absence of meiotic crossing over, frequent ectopic recombination within theMSY, and species differences in mating behaviour.
Comparative analysis of mammalian Y chromosomes illuminates ancestral structure and lineage-specific evolution.
TLDR
This work presents the first MSY (male-specific region of the Y chromosome) sequences from two carnivores, the domestic dog and cat, and identifies multiple conserved noncoding elements that potentially regulate eutherian MSY genes.
Strict evolutionary conservation followed rapid gene loss on human and rhesus Y chromosomes
TLDR
An empirical reconstruction of human MSY evolution is presented, in which each stratum transitioned from rapid, exponential loss of ancestral genes to strict conservation through purifying selection.
Novel Gene Acquisition on Carnivore Y Chromosomes
TLDR
The discovery of four novel Y chromosome genes that do not have functional copies in the finished human male-specific region of the Y or on other mammalian Y chromosomes explored thus far demonstrates the gene novelty on this chromosome between mammalian orders.
Sequencing of rhesus macaque Y chromosome clarifies origins and evolution of the DAZ (Deleted in AZoospermia) genes
TLDR
It is reported that DAZ arrived on the Y chromosome about 38 million years ago via the transposition of at least 1.1 megabases of autosomal DNA, but all five genes were subsequently lost through mutation or deletion.
Comparative analysis of chimpanzee and human Y chromosomes unveils complex evolutionary pathway
TLDR
Reconstruction of the common ancestral Y chromosome reflects the dynamic changes in genomes in the 5–6 million years since speciation and confirmed the accelerated evolutionary rate of the Y chromosome.
Y Chromosomal Variation Tracks the Evolution of Mating Systems in Chimpanzee and Bonobo
TLDR
FISH of testis-specific expressed ampliconic fertility genes to metaphase Y chromosomes of 17 chimpanzees derived from 11 wild-born males and 16 bonobos representing seven wild- born males showed contrasting patterns of variation, which might be explained in the context of the species' markedly different social and mating behaviour.
Evolution of X-Degenerate Y Chromosome Genes in Greater Apes: Conservation of Gene Content in Human and Gorilla, But Not Chimpanzee
TLDR
Taking mating patterns and effective population sizes of ape species into account, it is concluded that genetic hitchhiking associated with positive selection due to sperm competition might explain the rapid decline in the Y chromosome gene number in chimpanzee.
The evolutionary history of human and chimpanzee Y-chromosome gene loss.
TLDR
Y-chromosome sequences in gorilla, bonobo, and several chimpanzee subspecies are characterized for 7 chimpanzee gene-disruptive mutations that predate chimpanzee-bonobo divergence at approximately 1.8 MYA, which indicates significant Y- chromosome change in the chimpanzee lineage relatively early in the evolutionary divergence of humans and chimpanzees.
Extinction of chromosomes due to specialization is a universal occurrence
TLDR
The evolution of mammalian orthologs is examined to determine if the selective forces that led to the degeneration of the Y chromosome are unique in the genome, and the results of the study suggest these forces are not exclusive to the Y chromosomes.
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