Consensus statement on the diagnosis, treatment and follow‐up of patients with primary adrenal insufficiency

  title={Consensus statement on the diagnosis, treatment and follow‐up of patients with primary adrenal insufficiency},
  author={E. S. N. Husebye and Bruno Allolio and Wiebke Arlt and Klaus Badenhoop and Sophie Bensing and C. Betterle and Alberto Falorni and Earn H. Gan and Al Hulting and Anna A. Kasperlik-Załuska and Olle K{\"a}mpe and Kristian L{\o}v{\aa}s and Gesine Meyer and Scott Pearce},
  journal={Journal of Internal Medicine},
  pages={104 - 115}
Primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI), or Addison's disease, is a rare, potentially deadly, but treatable disease. Most cases of PAI are caused by autoimmune destruction of the adrenal cortex. Consequently, patients with PAI are at higher risk of developing other autoimmune diseases. The diagnosis of PAI is often delayed by many months, and most patients present with symptoms of acute adrenal insufficiency. Because PAI is rare, even medical specialists in this therapeutic area rarely manage more… 

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The challenges from both developed and developing country's perspective in treating PAI are highlighted and an update on current management scenario and future treatment options is provided.

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Addison’s disease (AD), also known as primary adrenal insufficiency, is a deficiency of glucocorticosteroids and mineral corticosteroids.1 This can result in an insidious, protracted presentation.

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An overview of different clinical aspects of adrenal crisis is given, and challenges and unmet needs in the management of AI and the adrenalrisis are discussed from both the doctor’s and patient’'s perspective.

Adrenal insufficiency: physiology, clinical presentation and diagnostic challenges.




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This work presents a comprehensive overview on clinical characteristics, treatment and follow‐up based on personal experience and published studies for APS‐I.

Italian addison network study: update of diagnostic criteria for the etiological classification of primary adrenal insufficiency.

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Current study confirms particular tendency of AAD patients to develop other autoimmune disorders, and active search for concomitant conditions is warranted to prevent serious complications.

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Risk of primary adrenal insufficiency in patients with celiac disease.

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