Consciousness without a cerebral cortex: A challenge for neuroscience and medicine

@article{Merker2007ConsciousnessWA,
  title={Consciousness without a cerebral cortex: A challenge for neuroscience and medicine},
  author={B. Merker},
  journal={Behavioral and Brain Sciences},
  year={2007},
  volume={30},
  pages={63 - 81}
}
  • B. Merker
  • Published 2007
  • Medicine, Psychology
  • Behavioral and Brain Sciences
A broad range of evidence regarding the functional organization of the vertebrate brain – spanning from comparative neurology to experimental psychology and neurophysiology to clinical data – is reviewed for its bearing on conceptions of the neural organization of consciousness. A novel principle relating target selection, action selection, and motivation to one another, as a means to optimize integration for action in real time, is introduced. With its help, the principal macrosystems of the… Expand
Neuropsychology of Consciousness: Some History and a Few New Trends
TLDR
A review of historical steps in the formulation of consciousness as a global brain function with arousal and content as principal ingredients, respectively, instantiated in the subcortex and the neocortex reports a few fresh developments in neuropsychology and cognitive neuroscience which emphasize the importance of the hippocampus for thinking and dreaming. Expand
Preserved Consciousness in the Absence of a Cerebral Cortex, the Legal and Ethical Implications of Redefining Consciousness and Its Neural Correlates: A Case for a Subcortical System Generating Affective Consciousness
Historically, the scientific and medical communities have taken a corticocentric view on consciousness, emphasizing the need for a cortex in producing the conscious experience. The preservedExpand
Discrepancy Between Cerebral Structure and Cognitive Functioning: A Review
TLDR
This article provides a review of noteworthy aspects of hydrocephalus, hemihydranencephaly, hemispherectomy, and certain abilities of “savants” and adds considerations on memory processing, comment on the assumed role of neural plasticity in these contexts, and highlight the importance of taking such anomalies into account when formulating encompassing models of brain functioning. Expand
Split Brains and Human Consciousness
Research on the consequences of complete section of the forebrain commissures in cats and monkeys, and in human patients operated to control epilepsy, has clarified how the brain mediates perception,Expand
Returning from Oblivion: Imaging the Neural Core of Consciousness
TLDR
The emergence of consciousness, as assessed with a motor response to a spoken command, is found to be associated with the activation of a core network involving subcortical and limbic regions that become functionally coupled with parts of frontal and inferior parietal cortices upon awakening from unconsciousness. Expand
Human Consciousness: The Role of Cerebral and Cerebellar Cortex, Vagal Afferents, and Beyond
TLDR
This chapter is a call for holistic perception of human consciousness incorporating the ancient wisdom of the human civilizations with the massive current advances in different disciplines of applied sciences to perceive consciousness as a massive universal event expanding from human genes to galaxies with cerebral cortex as major player. Expand
The thalamus: gateway to the mind.
  • L. Ward
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Wiley interdisciplinary reviews. Cognitive science
  • 2013
TLDR
The thalamus of the brain is far more than the simple sensory relay it was long thought to be and functions critically in all mental operations, including attention, memory, and consciousness, likely in different ways for different processes as indicated by the consequences of damage to its various nuclei. Expand
Evolutionary aspects of self- and world consciousness in vertebrates
TLDR
It is concluded that basic aspects of consciousness like primary self and core self (based on anoetic and noetic consciousness) are present in many species of vertebrates and that, even self-consciousness (autonoetic consciousness), does not seem to be a prerogative of humans and of some non-human primates but may, to a certain extent, be present in some other mammals and birds. Expand
On the Origin of Consciousness : Some Amniote Scenarios
Publisher Summary The phylogenetic origin of consciousness is virtually unknown. One reason for this is that there is no consensus about usable empirical markers of consciousness. The search for suchExpand
Minimal neuroanatomy for a conscious brain: Homing in on the networks constituting consciousness
TLDR
It is proposed that a consensus will be reached if investigators pool their knowledge regarding the regions whose non-participation does not in principle render the nervous system devoid of consciousness if investigators focus on the long-overlooked olfactory system. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 1,139 REFERENCES
Consciousness and the brainstem
TLDR
A theoretical framework and a set of hypotheses aimed at accounting for consciousness in neurobiological terms are summarized and the functional neuroanatomy of nuclei in the brainstem reticular formation is discussed because they constitute the basic set of somato-sensing structures necessary for core consciousness and its core self to emerge. Expand
A Neural Attentional Model for Access to Consciousness: A Global Workspace Perspective
A broad consensus has developed in recent years in the cognitive and neurosciences that the cognitive functions of the mind arise out of the activities of an extensive and diverse array ofExpand
The Midbrain and Motor Integration
  • D. Denny-Brown
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine
  • 1962
TLDR
His outstanding contribution was the unravelling of the patterns of spinal reflexes and their interaction and enough to show the complexity and lability of these in contrast to the more readily identifiable spinal level of management. Expand
Consciousness: At the Frontiers of Neuroscience
Based on the annual neurological research symposium of the University of Montreal, this volume reviews theoretical and experimental research on consciousness and cognitive neuroscience. It beginsExpand
A new look at the organization of the motor system.
  • H. Kuypers
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Progress in brain research
  • 1982
TLDR
This chapter provides an overview on the organization of the motor system, a striking parallel exists between the development of the corticomotoneuronal connections and the capacity to execute highly fractionated movements in the rhesus monkey. Expand
Of dreaming and wakefulness
TLDR
It is argued that consciousness is fundamentally a closed-loop property, in which the ability of cells to be intrinsically active plays a central role, and the importance of spatial and temporal mapping in the elaboration of cognitive and perceptual constructs is discussed. Expand
A new view of specific and nonspecific thalamocortical connections.
TLDR
Evidence is presented to show the presence of a matrix of superficially projecting cells extending throughout the whole thalamus that could form a substrate for diffusion of activity across the cortex, essential for the binding of all aspects of sensory experience into a single framework of consciousness. Expand
Criteria for consciousness in humans and other mammals
TLDR
This work suggests more than a dozen additional properties of human consciousness that may be used to test comparative predictions, some of which apply to some birds, reptiles, large-brained invertebrates, and perhaps other species. Expand
A new view of specific and nonspecific thalamocortical connections.
Past theories about the circuitry that promotes integration of the whole cerebral cortex and thalamus during forebrain activities that underlie different states of consciousness have relied on theExpand
The evolving theory of basal forebrain functional—anatomical ‘macrosystems’
  • D. S. Zahm
  • Medicine, Biology
  • Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews
  • 2006
TLDR
It is posed that the macrosystem theory leads to a hypothesis that different macrosystems cooperate and compete to exert distinct influences on motor and cognitive function and extant literature and some unpublished data indicate that the input nuclei of macroSystems are not abundantly interconnected and macro systems systems have distinct neuroanatomical relationships with basal forebrain and brainstem cholinergic and dopaminergic ascending modulatory systems. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...