Connexin32 regulates hepatoma cell metastasis and proliferation via the p53 and Akt pathways
Gap junctions and their structural proteins, connexins (Cxs), have been implicated in carcinogenesis. To explore the involvement of Cx32 in gastric carcinogenesis, immunochemical analysis of Cx32 and proliferation marker Ki67 using tissue-microarrayed human gastric cancer and normal tissues was performed. In addition, after Cx32 overexpression in the human gastric cancer cell line AGS, cell proliferation, cell cycle analyses, and p21(Cip1) and p27(Kip1) expression levels were examined by bromodeoxyuridine assay, flow cytometry, real-time RT-PCR, and western blotting. Immunohistochemical study noted a strong inverse correlation between Cx32 and Ki67 expression pattern as well as their location. In vitro, overexpression of Cx32 in AGS cells inhibited cell proliferation significantly. G1 arrest, up-regulation of cell cycle-regulatory proteins p21(Cip1) and p27(Kip1) was also found at both mRNA and protein levels. Taken together, Cx32 plays some roles in gastric cancer development by inhibiting gastric cancer cell proliferation through cell cycle arrest and cell cycle regulatory proteins.