The increasing rate in antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains has become an imperative health issue. Thus, pharmaceutical industries have focussed their efforts to find new potent, non-toxic compounds to treat bacterial infections. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are promising candidates in the fight against antibiotic-resistant pathogens due to their low toxicity, broad range of activity and unspecific mechanism of action. In this context, bioinformatics' strategies can inspire the design of new peptide leads with enhanced activity. Here, we describe an artificial neural network approach, based on the AMP's physicochemical characteristics, that is able not only to identify active peptides but also to assess its antimicrobial potency. The physicochemical properties considered are directly derived from the peptide sequence and comprise a complete set of parameters that accurately describe AMPs. Most interesting, the results obtained dovetail with a model for the AMP's mechanism of action that takes into account new concepts such as peptide aggregation. Moreover, this classification system displays high accuracy and is well correlated with the experimentally reported data. All together, these results suggest that the physicochemical properties of AMPs determine its action. In addition, we conclude that sequence derived parameters are enough to characterize antimicrobial peptides.