Congenital toxoplasmosis is an established cause of abortion, neonatal disease and ocular defects presenting in later life. Preventative options include health education, immunization and screening of pregnant women and infants with appropriate management of cases found to be at risk. Screening requires a knowledge of the disease, the test, the treatment and the administration of the proposed programme. Treatment can be directed towards the acutely infected mother, the infected fetus or infant and the patient with an acute exacerbation of ocular toxoplasmosis following congenital infection. Harm-benefit assessment of screening programmes designed to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis has produced conflicting results. Further research is required into the incidence of acute toxoplasmosis in pregnancy and subsequent congenital infection, the frequency of neonatal handicap, precise tests for the diagnosis of recent maternal infection and the presence of congenital toxoplasmosis and improved treatment of the infection.